Last tested: 20 Feb, 2018

pm2 vulnerabilities

Production process manager for Node.JS applications with a built-in load balancer.

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pm2 (latest)

Published 20 Feb, 2018

Known vulnerabilities2
Vulnerable paths9
Dependencies332

Prototype Pollution

low severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: pm2@2.10.1 > chokidar@2.0.2 > fsevents@1.1.3 > node-pre-gyp@0.6.39 > hawk@3.1.3 > hoek@2.16.3
  • Introduced through: pm2@2.10.1 > chokidar@2.0.2 > fsevents@1.1.3 > node-pre-gyp@0.6.39 > hawk@3.1.3 > boom@2.10.1 > hoek@2.16.3
  • Introduced through: pm2@2.10.1 > chokidar@2.0.2 > fsevents@1.1.3 > node-pre-gyp@0.6.39 > hawk@3.1.3 > cryptiles@2.0.5 > boom@2.10.1 > hoek@2.16.3
  • Introduced through: pm2@2.10.1 > chokidar@2.0.2 > fsevents@1.1.3 > node-pre-gyp@0.6.39 > request@2.81.0 > hawk@3.1.3 > cryptiles@2.0.5 > boom@2.10.1 > hoek@2.16.3
  • Introduced through: pm2@2.10.1 > chokidar@2.0.2 > fsevents@1.1.3 > node-pre-gyp@0.6.39 > request@2.81.0 > hawk@3.1.3 > boom@2.10.1 > hoek@2.16.3
  • Introduced through: pm2@2.10.1 > chokidar@2.0.2 > fsevents@1.1.3 > node-pre-gyp@0.6.39 > hawk@3.1.3 > sntp@1.0.9 > hoek@2.16.3
  • Introduced through: pm2@2.10.1 > chokidar@2.0.2 > fsevents@1.1.3 > node-pre-gyp@0.6.39 > request@2.81.0 > hawk@3.1.3 > sntp@1.0.9 > hoek@2.16.3
  • Introduced through: pm2@2.10.1 > chokidar@2.0.2 > fsevents@1.1.3 > node-pre-gyp@0.6.39 > request@2.81.0 > hawk@3.1.3 > hoek@2.16.3

Overview

hoek is a Utility methods for the hapi ecosystem.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Prototype Pollution. The utilities function allow modification of the Object prototype. If an attacker can control part of the structure passed to this function, they could add or modify an existing property.

PoC by Olivier Arteau (HoLyVieR)

var Hoek = require('hoek');
var malicious_payload = '{"__proto__":{"oops":"It works !"}}';

var a = {};
console.log("Before : " + a.oops);
Hoek.merge({}, JSON.parse(malicious_payload));
console.log("After : " + a.oops);

Remediation

Upgrade hoek to versions 4.2.1, 5.0.3 or higher.

References

Command Injection

high severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: pm2@2.10.1 > shelljs@0.7.8

Overview

shelljs is a portable Unix shell commands for Node.js. It is possible to invoke commands from shell.exec() from external sources, allowing an attacker to inject arbitrary commands.

Remediation

There is no fix version for shelljs.

References

Vulnerable versions of pm2

Fixed in 2.10.0

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

low severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: pm2@2.9.3 > chokidar@1.7.0 > anymatch@1.3.2 > micromatch@2.3.11 > braces@1.8.5

Overview

braces is a Bash-like brace expansion, implemented in JavaScript.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) attacks. It used a regular expression (^\{(,+(?:(\{,+\})*),*|,*(?:(\{,+\})*),+)\}) in order to detects empty braces. This can cause an impact of about 10 seconds matching time for data 50K characters long.

Disclosure Timeline

  • Feb 15th, 2018 - Initial Disclosure to package owner
  • Feb 16th, 2018 - Initial Response from package owner
  • Feb 18th, 2018 - Fix issued
  • Feb 19th, 2018 - Vulnerability published

Details

Denial of Service (DoS) describes a family of attacks, all aimed at making a system inaccessible to its original and legitimate users. There are many types of DoS attacks, ranging from trying to clog the network pipes to the system by generating a large volume of traffic from many machines (a Distributed Denial of Service - DDoS - attack) to sending crafted requests that cause a system to crash or take a disproportional amount of time to process.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Regular expressions are incredibly powerful, but they aren't very intuitive and can ultimately end up making it easy for attackers to take your site down.

Let’s take the following regular expression as an example:

regex = /A(B|C+)+D/

This regular expression accomplishes the following:

  • A The string must start with the letter 'A'
  • (B|C+)+ The string must then follow the letter A with either the letter 'B' or some number of occurrences of the letter 'C' (the + matches one or more times). The + at the end of this section states that we can look for one or more matches of this section.
  • D Finally, we ensure this section of the string ends with a 'D'

The expression would match inputs such as ABBD, ABCCCCD, ABCBCCCD and ACCCCCD

It most cases, it doesn't take very long for a regex engine to find a match:

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCD")'
0.04s user 0.01s system 95% cpu 0.052 total

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCX")'
1.79s user 0.02s system 99% cpu 1.812 total

The entire process of testing it against a 30 characters long string takes around ~52ms. But when given an invalid string, it takes nearly two seconds to complete the test, over ten times as long as it took to test a valid string. The dramatic difference is due to the way regular expressions get evaluated.

Most Regex engines will work very similarly (with minor differences). The engine will match the first possible way to accept the current character and proceed to the next one. If it then fails to match the next one, it will backtrack and see if there was another way to digest the previous character. If it goes too far down the rabbit hole only to find out the string doesn’t match in the end, and if many characters have multiple valid regex paths, the number of backtracking steps can become very large, resulting in what is known as catastrophic backtracking.

Let's look at how our expression runs into this problem, using a shorter string: "ACCCX". While it seems fairly straightforward, there are still four different ways that the engine could match those three C's:

  1. CCC
  2. CC+C
  3. C+CC
  4. C+C+C.

The engine has to try each of those combinations to see if any of them potentially match against the expression. When you combine that with the other steps the engine must take, we can use RegEx 101 debugger to see the engine has to take a total of 38 steps before it can determine the string doesn't match.

From there, the number of steps the engine must use to validate a string just continues to grow.

String Number of C's Number of steps
ACCCX 3 38
ACCCCX 4 71
ACCCCCX 5 136
ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCX 14 65,553

By the time the string includes 14 C's, the engine has to take over 65,000 steps just to see if the string is valid. These extreme situations can cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size, as shown above), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

Remediation

Upgrade braces to version 2.3.1 or higher.

References

Fixed in 2.7.0

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

low severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: pm2@2.6.1 > pm2-axon@3.0.2 > debug@2.2.0

Overview

debug is a JavaScript debugging utility modelled after Node.js core's debugging technique..

debug uses printf-style formatting. Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) attacks via the the %o formatter (Pretty-print an Object all on a single line). It used a regular expression (/\s*\n\s*/g) in order to strip whitespaces and replace newlines with spaces, in order to join the data into a single line. This can cause a very low impact of about 2 seconds matching time for data 50k characters long.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Many Regular Expression implementations may reach extreme situations that cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the program to enter these extreme situations by using a specially crafted input and cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

You can read more about Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) on our blog.

Remediation

Upgrade debug to version 2.6.9, 3.1.0 or higher.

References

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

low severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: pm2@2.6.1 > pm2-axon@3.0.2 > debug@2.2.0 > ms@0.7.1

Overview

ms is a tiny millisecond conversion utility.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) due to an incomplete fix for previously reported vulnerability npm:ms:20151024. The fix limited the length of accepted input string to 10,000 characters, and turned to be insufficient making it possible to block the event loop for 0.3 seconds (on a typical laptop) with a specially crafted string passed to ms() function.

Proof of concept

ms = require('ms');
ms('1'.repeat(9998) + 'Q') // Takes about ~0.3s

Note: Snyk's patch for this vulnerability limits input length to 100 characters. This new limit was deemed to be a breaking change by the author. Based on user feedback, we believe the risk of breakage is very low, while the value to your security is much greater, and therefore opted to still capture this change in a patch for earlier versions as well. Whenever patching security issues, we always suggest to run tests on your code to validate that nothing has been broken.

For more information on Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) attacks, go to our blog.

Disclosure Timeline

  • Feb 9th, 2017 - Reported the issue to package owner.
  • Feb 11th, 2017 - Issue acknowledged by package owner.
  • April 12th, 2017 - Fix PR opened by Snyk Security Team.
  • May 15th, 2017 - Vulnerability published.
  • May 16th, 2017 - Issue fixed and version 2.0.0 released.
  • May 21th, 2017 - Patches released for versions >=0.7.1, <=1.0.0.

Remediation

Upgrade ms to version 2.0.0 or higher.

References

Fixed in 2.1.3

Prototype Pollution

low severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: pm2@2.1.2 > cli-table2@0.2.0 > lodash@3.10.1

Overview

lodash is a javaScript utility library delivering modularity, performance & extras.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Prototype Pollution. The utilities function allow modification of the Object prototype. If an attacker can control part of the structure passed to this function, they could add or modify an existing property.

PoC by Olivier Arteau (HoLyVieR)

var _= require('lodash');
var malicious_payload = '{"__proto__":{"oops":"It works !"}}';

var a = {};
console.log("Before : " + a.oops);
_.merge({}, JSON.parse(malicious_payload));
console.log("After : " + a.oops);

Remediation

Upgrade lodash to version 4.17.5 or higher.

References

Fixed in 2.0.0

Regular Expression Denial of Service (DoS)

high severity
  • Vulnerable module: minimatch
  • Introduced through: yamljs@0.2.7

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: pm2@1.1.3 > yamljs@0.2.7 > glob@4.5.3 > minimatch@2.0.10

Overview

minimatch is a minimalistic matching library used for converting glob expressions into JavaScript RegExp objects. Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) attacks.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Many Regular Expression implementations may reach edge cases that causes them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the program to enter these extreme situations by using a specially crafted input and cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

An attacker can provide a long value to the minimatch function, which nearly matches the pattern being matched. This will cause the regular expression matching to take a long time, all the while occupying the event loop and preventing it from processing other requests and making the server unavailable (a Denial of Service attack).

You can read more about Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) on our blog.

Remediation

Upgrade minimatch to version 3.0.2 or greater.

References

Fixed in 1.1.1

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

medium severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: pm2@1.0.2 > moment@2.11.2

Overview

moment is a lightweight JavaScript date library for parsing, validating, manipulating, and formatting dates.

Affected versions of the package are vulnerable to Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) attacks for any locale that has separate format and standalone options and format input can be controlled by the user.

An attacker can provide a specially crafted input to the format function, which nearly matches the pattern being matched. This will cause the regular expression matching to take a long time, all the while occupying the event loop and preventing it from processing other requests and making the server unavailable (a Denial of Service attack).

Disclosure Timeline

  • October 19th, 2016 - Reported the issue to package owner.
  • October 19th, 2016 - Issue acknowledged by package owner.
  • October 24th, 2016 - Issue fixed and version 2.15.2 released.

References

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

low severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: pm2@1.0.2 > moment@2.11.2

Overview

moment is a lightweight JavaScript date library for parsing, validating, manipulating, and formatting dates.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) attacks. It used a regular expression (/[0-9]*['a-z\u00A0-\u05FF\u0700-\uD7FF\uF900-\uFDCF\uFDF0-\uFFEF]+|[\u0600-\u06FF\/]+(\s*?[\u0600-\u06FF]+){1,2}/i) in order to parse dates specified as strings. This can cause a very low impact of about 2 seconds matching time for data 50k characters long.

Details

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Many Regular Expression implementations may reach extreme situations that cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the program to enter these extreme situations by using a specially crafted input and cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

You can read more about Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) on our blog.

Remediation

Upgrade moment to version 2.19.3 or higher.

References

Fixed in 1.0.1

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

low severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: pm2@1.0.0 > moment@2.10.6

Overview

moment is a lightweight JavaScript date library for parsing, validating, manipulating, and formatting dates.

An attacker can provide a long value to the duration function, which nearly matches the pattern being matched. This will cause the regular expression matching to take a long time, all the while occupying the event loop and preventing it from processing other requests and making the server unavailable (a Denial of Service attack).

"The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a Denial of Service attack, that exploits the fact that most Regular Expression implementations may reach extreme situations that cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size). An attacker can then cause a program using a Regular Expression to enter these extreme situations and then hang for a very long time." 1

Remediation

Upgrade moment to version 2.11.2 or greater.

References

Fixed in 1.0.0

Arbitrary Command Injection

high severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: pm2@0.15.10 > pidusage@0.1.1

Overview

pidusage is a package for Cross-platform process cpu % and memory usage of a PID. Affected versions of the package are vulnerable to Arbitrary Command Injection. It passes user input to child_process.exec without sanitization, which causes a command injection vulnerability in the ps function due to never casting the PID to an integer.

PoC:

var pid = require('pidusage');
pid.stat('1 && /usr/local/bin/python');

Remediation

Upgrade pidusage to version 1.1.5 or higher.

References

Fixed in 0.14.0

Regular Expression Denial of Service (DoS)

medium severity
  • Vulnerable module: ms
  • Introduced through: debug@2.1.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: pm2@0.12.16 > debug@2.1.0 > ms@0.6.2

Overview

ms is a tiny milisecond conversion utility.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to a Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) attack when converting a time period string (i.e. "2 days", "1h") into milliseconds integer. A malicious user could pas extremely long strings to ms(), causing the server take a long time to process, subsequently blocking the event loop for that extended period.

Details

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Many Regular Expression implementations may reach extreme situations that cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the program to enter these extreme situations by using a specially crafted input and cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

Remediation

Upgrade ms to version 0.7.1.

If direct dependency upgrade is not possible, use snyk wizard to patch this vulnerability.

References

Fixed in 0.12.11

Regular Expression Denial of Service (DoS)

medium severity
  • Vulnerable module: semver
  • Introduced through: semver@4.3.1

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: pm2@0.12.10 > semver@4.3.1

Overview

The semver module uses regular expressions when parsing a version string. For a carefully crafted input, the time it takes to process these regular expressions is not linear to the length of the input. Since the semver module did not enforce a limit on the version string length, an attacker could provide a long string that would take up a large amount of resources, potentially taking a server down. This issue therefore enables a potential Denial of Service attack. This is a slightly differnt variant of a typical Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) vulnerability.

Remediation

Update to a version 4.3.2 or greater. From the issue description [2]: "Package version can no longer be more than 256 characters long. This prevents a situation in which parsing the version number can use exponentially more time and memory to parse, leading to a potential denial of service."

References

Fixed in 0.10.0-beta7

Resources Downloaded over Insecure Protocol

high severity
  • Vulnerable module: ikst
  • Introduced through: ikst@0.1.2

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: pm2@0.10.0-beta6 > ikst@0.1.2

Overview

ikst Affected versions of the package are vulnerable to Man in the Middle (MitM) attacks due to downloading resources over an insecure protocol. Without a secure connection, it is possible for an attacker to intercept this connection and alter the packages received. In serious cases, this may even lead to Remote Code Execution (RCE) on your host server.

You can read more about Resources downloaded over insecure protocol on our blog.

Remediation

Upgrade ikst to version 1.1.2 or higher.

Malicious Package

high severity
  • Vulnerable module: ikst
  • Introduced through: ikst@0.1.2

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: pm2@0.10.0-beta6 > ikst@0.1.2

Overview

ikst is a malicious package that was used to collect download metrics beyond what npm provides, and sent them to google analytics or piwik. This can cause a privacy concern amongst users.

This is especially dangerous in production runtime environments, where environment variables tend to consist of keys, passwords, tokens and other secrets.

Example:

{
  "name": "npm_scripts_test_metrics",
  "scripts": {
    "preinstall": "curl 'http://google-analytics.com/collect?v=1&t=event&tid=....'",
    "postinstall": "curl 'http://google-analytics.com/collect?v=1&t=event&tid=....'"
  }
},
{
  "name": "subtitles-lib",
  "scripts": {
    "postinstall": "bash -c 'curl \"http://avighier.piwikpro.com/piwik.php?idsite=3&rec=1&action_name=$HOSTNAME\"'"
  }
}

The list of packages and their scripts are:

npm_scripts_test_metrics
subtitles-lib
ikst
botbait
mktmpio
anarchy

Remediation

Avoid usage of this package altogether.

References