Last tested: 20 Feb, 2018

hapi vulnerabilities

HTTP Server framework

View on npm

hapi (latest)

Published 14 Feb, 2018

Known vulnerabilities0
Vulnerable paths0
Dependencies30

No known vulnerabilities in hapi

Security wise, hapi seems to be a safe package to use.
Over time, new vulnerabilities may be disclosed on hapi and other packages. To easily find, fix and prevent such vulnerabilties, protect your repos with Snyk!

Vulnerable versions of hapi

Fixed in 16.4.2

Prototype Pollution

low severity
  • Vulnerable module: hoek
  • Introduced through: hoek@4.1.1

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@16.4.1 > hoek@4.1.1

Overview

hoek is a Utility methods for the hapi ecosystem.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Prototype Pollution. The utilities function allow modification of the Object prototype. If an attacker can control part of the structure passed to this function, they could add or modify an existing property.

PoC by Olivier Arteau (HoLyVieR)

var Hoek = require('hoek');
var malicious_payload = '{"__proto__":{"oops":"It works !"}}';

var a = {};
console.log("Before : " + a.oops);
Hoek.merge({}, JSON.parse(malicious_payload));
console.log("After : " + a.oops);

Remediation

Upgrade hoek to versions 4.2.1, 5.0.3 or higher.

References

Fixed in 16.1.1

Denial of Service (DoS)

medium severity
  • Vulnerable module: hapi
  • Introduced through: hapi@16.1.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@16.1.0

Overview

hapi is an HTTP Server framework. Affected versions of the package are vulnerable to Denial of Service (DoS). A client can send a malformed accept-encoding header to the server, invoking an uncaught exception and may cause the server to crash or hang for long periods of time.

Remediation

Upgrade hapi to version 16.1.1 or higher.

References

Fixed in 11.1.4

Potentially loose security restrictions

low severity
  • Vulnerable module: hapi
  • Introduced through: hapi@11.1.3

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@11.1.3

Overview

Security restrictions (e.g. origin) get overridden by less restrictive defaults (i.e. all origins) in cases when server level, connection level or route level CORS configurations are combined.

References

Fixed in 11.1.3

Denial of Service through invalid If-Modified-Since/Last-Modified headers

high severity
  • Vulnerable module: hapi
  • Introduced through: hapi@11.1.2

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@11.1.2

Overview

Sending a purposefully crafted invalid date in the If-Modified-Since or Last-Modified header will cause the Hapi server to err but keep the socket open (the socket will time out after 2 minutes by default). This allows an attacker to quickly exhaust the sockets on the server, making it unavailable (a Denial of Service attack).

The vulnerability is caused by the combination of two bugs. First, the underlying V8 engine throws an exception when processing the specially crafted date, instead of stating the date is invalid as it should. Second, the Hapi server does not handle the exception well, leading to the socket remaining open.

Upgrading Hapi will address the second issue and thus fix the vulnerability.

References

Fixed in 11.0.4

Improper input validation

medium severity
  • Vulnerable module: call
  • Introduced through: call@2.0.2

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@11.0.3 > call@2.0.2

Overview

call is the primary HTTP router of the hapi framework.

The vulnerability arise from undefined values inside a path (last segment being an exception) making their way into components that do not care for values being undefined (eg. the database layer).

For example, the request URI /delete/company// may incorrectly match a route looking for /delete/company/{company}/. By itself, the bad match is not a vulnerability. However, depending on the remaining logic in the application, such a bad match may result in skipping a protection mechanisms. In the above example, if the route translates to a DB delete command, it might delete all the companies from the db.

Remediation

Upgrade to version 3.0.2 or higher.

References

https://github.com/hapijs/hapi/issues/3228 https://github.com/hapijs/call/commit/9570eee5358b4383715cc6a13cb95971678efd30

Prototype Override Protection Bypass

high severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@11.0.3 > qs@5.2.1
  • Introduced through: hapi@11.0.3 > subtext@2.0.2 > qs@5.2.1

Overview

qs is a querystring parser that supports nesting and arrays, with a depth limit.

By default qs protects against attacks that attempt to overwrite an object's existing prototype properties, such as toString(), hasOwnProperty(),etc.

From qs documentation:

By default parameters that would overwrite properties on the object prototype are ignored, if you wish to keep the data from those fields either use plainObjects as mentioned above, or set allowPrototypes to true which will allow user input to overwrite those properties. WARNING It is generally a bad idea to enable this option as it can cause problems when attempting to use the properties that have been overwritten. Always be careful with this option.

Overwriting these properties can impact application logic, potentially allowing attackers to work around security controls, modify data, make the application unstable and more.

In versions of the package affected by this vulnerability, it is possible to circumvent this protection and overwrite prototype properties and functions by prefixing the name of the parameter with [ or ]. e.g. qs.parse("]=toString") will return {toString = true}, as a result, calling toString() on the object will throw an exception.

Example:

qs.parse('toString=foo', { allowPrototypes: false })
// {}

qs.parse("]=toString", { allowPrototypes: false })
// {toString = true} <== prototype overwritten

For more information, you can check out our blog.

Disclosure Timeline

  • February 13th, 2017 - Reported the issue to package owner.
  • February 13th, 2017 - Issue acknowledged by package owner.
  • February 16th, 2017 - Partial fix released in versions 6.0.3, 6.1.1, 6.2.2, 6.3.1.
  • March 6th, 2017 - Final fix released in versions 6.4.0,6.3.2, 6.2.3, 6.1.2 and 6.0.4

Remediation

Upgrade qs to version 6.4.0 or higher. Note: The fix was backported to the following versions 6.3.2, 6.2.3, 6.1.2, 6.0.4.

References

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

medium severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@11.0.3 > subtext@2.0.2 > content@1.0.2
  • Introduced through: hapi@11.0.3 > subtext@2.0.2 > pez@1.0.0 > content@1.0.2

Overview

content is HTTP Content-* headers parsing.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) attacks. An attacker may pass a specially crafted Content-Type or Content-Disposition header, causing the server to hang.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Many Regular Expression implementations may reach extreme situations that cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the program to enter these extreme situations by using a specially crafted input and cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

You can read more about Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) on our blog.

Remediation

Upgrade content to version 3.0.6 or higher.

References

Fixed in 11.0.0

Incorrect handling of CORS preflight request headers

low severity
  • Vulnerable module: hapi
  • Introduced through: hapi@10.5.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@10.5.0

Overview

Hapi v11.0.0 and below have an incorrect implementation of the CORS protocol, and allow for configurations that, at best, return inconsistent headers and, at worst, cross-origin activities that are expected to be forbidden.

Details

If the connection has CORS enabled but one route has it off, and the route is not GET, the OPTIONS prefetch request will return the default CORS headers and then the actual request will go through and return no CORS headers. This defeats the purpose of turning CORS on the route.

Remediation

Upgrade to a version 11.0.0 or greater.

References

Fixed in 7.0.0

Regular Expression Denial of Service (DoS)

medium severity
  • Vulnerable module: semver
  • Introduced through: semver@2.3.2

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@6.11.1 > semver@2.3.2

Overview

The semver module uses regular expressions when parsing a version string. For a carefully crafted input, the time it takes to process these regular expressions is not linear to the length of the input. Since the semver module did not enforce a limit on the version string length, an attacker could provide a long string that would take up a large amount of resources, potentially taking a server down. This issue therefore enables a potential Denial of Service attack. This is a slightly differnt variant of a typical Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) vulnerability.

Remediation

Update to a version 4.3.2 or greater. From the issue description [2]: "Package version can no longer be more than 256 characters long. This prevents a situation in which parsing the version number can use exponentially more time and memory to parse, leading to a potential denial of service."

References

Fixed in 6.11.0

Regular Expression Denial of Service (DoS)

high severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@6.10.0 > negotiator@0.4.9

Overview

negotiator is an HTTP content negotiator for Node.js. Versions prior to 0.6.1 are vulnerable to Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) attack when parsing "Accept-Language" http header.

An attacker can provide a long value in the Accept-Language header, which nearly matches the pattern being matched. This will cause the regular expression matching to take a long time, all the while occupying the thread and preventing it from processing other requests. By repeatedly sending multiple such requests, the attacker can make the server unavailable (a Denial of Service attack).

Details

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a Denial of Service attack, that exploits the fact that most Regular Expression implementations may reach extreme situations that cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size). An attacker can then cause a program using a Regular Expression to enter these extreme situations and then hang for a very long time. [1]

Remediation

Upgrade negotiator to to version 0.6.1 or greater.

References

Fixed in 6.5.0

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

low severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: cordova@6.4.0 > cordova-lib@6.4.0 > request@2.47.0 > form-data@0.1.4 > mime@1.2.11
  • Introduced through: hapi@6.4.0 > mime@1.2.11

Overview

mime is a comprehensive, compact MIME type module.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS). It uses regex the following regex /.*[\.\/\\]/ in its lookup, which can cause a slowdown of 2 seconds for 50k characters.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Many Regular Expression implementations may reach extreme situations that cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the program to enter these extreme situations by using a specially crafted input and cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

You can read more about Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) on our blog.

Remediation

Upgrade mime to versions 1.4.1, 2.0.3 or higher.

References

Fixed in 6.4.0

Denial of Service (Memory Exhaustion)

high severity
  • Vulnerable module: qs
  • Introduced through: qs@0.6.6

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@6.3.0 > qs@0.6.6

Overview

qs is a querystring parser that supports nesting and arrays, with a depth limit.

During parsing, the qs module may create a sparse area (an array where no elements are filled), and grow that array to the necessary size based on the indices used on it. An attacker can specify a high index value in a query string, thus making the server allocate a respectively big array. Truly large values can cause the server to run out of memory and cause it to crash - thus enabling a Denial-of-Service attack.

Remediation

Upgrade qs to version 1.0.0 or greater. In these versions, qs introduced a low limit on the index value, preventing such an attack

References

Denial of Service (Event Loop Blocking)

medium severity
  • Vulnerable module: qs
  • Introduced through: qs@0.6.6

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@6.3.0 > qs@0.6.6

Overview

qs is a querystring parser that supports nesting and arrays, with a depth limit.

When parsing a string representing a deeply nested object, qs will block the event loop for long periods of time. Such a delay may hold up the server's resources, keeping it from processing other requests in the meantime, thus enabling a Denial-of-Service attack.

Remediation

Update qs to version 1.0.0 or higher. In these versions, qs enforces a max object depth (along with other limits), limiting the event loop length and thus preventing such an attack.

References

Fixed in 6.1.0

Rosetta-flash jsonp vulnerability

medium severity
  • Vulnerable module: hapi
  • Introduced through: hapi@6.0.2

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@6.0.2

Overview

This description taken from the pull request provided by Patrick Kettner.

tl:dr - someone created a alphanum only swf converter, which means that they can in theory use it as a callback at a JSONP endpoint, and as a result, send data across domains.

Prepending callbacks with an empty inline comment breaks the flash parser, and prevents the issue. This is a fairly common solution currently being implemented by Google, Facebook, and GitHub.

Source: Node Security Project

Details

Background from the vulnerabilty finder

Remediation

Upgrade to the latest version of hapi.js

References

Fixed in 2.2.0

Denial of Service due to file descriptor leak

high severity
  • Vulnerable module: hapi
  • Introduced through: hapi@2.1.2

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@2.1.2

Overview

Versions 2.0.x and 2.1.x have a file descriptor leak that when triggered repeatedly will cause the server to run out of file descriptors and the node process to die. The effort required to take down a server depends on the process file descriptor limit. No other side effects or exploits have been identified.

Source: Node Security Project

Details

Impact:

This vulnerability allows an attacker to take down a hapi-based server running versions 2.0.x and 2.1.x. This does NOT affect hapi 1.x deployments.

Remediation

Please upgrade to version 2.2.x or above as soon as possible.

References

Fixed in 2.0.0

Regular Expression Denial of Service (DoS)

low severity
  • Vulnerable module: hawk
  • Introduced through: hawk@1.1.2

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@1.20.0 > hawk@1.1.2

Overview

hawk Hawk is an HTTP authentication scheme using a message authentication code (MAC) algorithm to provide partial HTTP request cryptographic verification. Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) attacks.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Many Regular Expression implementations may reach edge cases that causes them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the program to enter these extreme situations by using a specially crafted input and cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

An attacker can provide a long url, which nearly matches the pattern being matched. This will cause the regular expression matching to take a long time, all the while occupying the event loop and preventing it from processing other requests and making the server unavailable (a Denial of Service attack).

You can read more about Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) on our blog.

References

Fixed in 1.2.0

Remote Memory Exposure

medium severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: bower@1.1.0 > request@2.25.0
  • Introduced through: bower@1.1.0 > bower-registry-client@0.1.6 > request@2.27.0
  • Introduced through: yo@1.1.0 > insight@0.3.1 > request@2.27.0
  • Introduced through: yo@1.1.0 > yeoman-generator@0.15.0 > request@2.30.0
  • Introduced through: hapi@1.1.0 > request@2.21.0

Overview

request is a simplified http request client. A potential remote memory exposure vulnerability exists in request. If a request uses a multipart attachment and the body type option is number with value X, then X bytes of uninitialized memory will be sent in the body of the request.

Note that while the impact of this vulnerability is high (memory exposure), exploiting it is likely difficult, as the attacker needs to somehow control the body type of the request. One potential exploit scenario is when a request is composed based on JSON input, including the body type, allowing a malicious JSON to trigger the memory leak.

Details

Constructing a Buffer class with integer N creates a Buffer of length N with non zero-ed out memory. Example:

var x = new Buffer(100); // uninitialized Buffer of length 100
// vs
var x = new Buffer('100'); // initialized Buffer with value of '100'

Initializing a multipart body in such manner will cause uninitialized memory to be sent in the body of the request.

Proof of concept

var http = require('http')
var request = require('request')

http.createServer(function (req, res) {
  var data = ''
  req.setEncoding('utf8')
  req.on('data', function (chunk) {
    console.log('data')
    data += chunk
  })
  req.on('end', function () {
    // this will print uninitialized memory from the client
    console.log('Client sent:\n', data)
  })
  res.end()
}).listen(8000)

request({
  method: 'POST',
  uri: 'http://localhost:8000',
  multipart: [{ body: 1000 }]
},
function (err, res, body) {
  if (err) return console.error('upload failed:', err)
  console.log('sent')
})

Remediation

Upgrade request to version 2.68.0 or higher.

If a direct dependency update is not possible, use snyk wizard to patch this vulnerability.

References

Timing Attack

medium severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: bower@1.1.0 > request@2.25.0 > http-signature@0.10.1
  • Introduced through: bower@1.1.0 > bower-registry-client@0.1.6 > request@2.27.0 > http-signature@0.10.1
  • Introduced through: yo@1.1.0 > insight@0.3.1 > request@2.27.0 > http-signature@0.10.1
  • Introduced through: yo@1.1.0 > yeoman-generator@0.15.0 > request@2.30.0 > http-signature@0.10.1
  • Introduced through: hapi@1.1.0 > request@2.21.0 > http-signature@0.9.11

Overview

http-signature is a reference implementation of Joyent's HTTP Signature scheme. Affected versions of the package are vulnerable to Timing Attacks due to time-variable comparison of signatures. il.

The library implemented a character to character comparison, similar to the built-in string comparison mechanism, ===, and not a time constant string comparison. As a result, the comparison will fail faster when the first characters in the signature are incorrect. An attacker can use this difference to perform a timing attack, essentially allowing them to guess the signature one character at a time.

You can read more about timing attacks in Node.js on the Snyk blog.

Remediation

Upgrade http-signature to version 1.0.0 or higher.

References

Uninitialized Memory Exposure

medium severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: bower@1.1.0 > request@2.25.0 > tunnel-agent@0.3.0
  • Introduced through: bower@1.1.0 > bower-registry-client@0.1.6 > request@2.27.0 > tunnel-agent@0.3.0
  • Introduced through: yo@1.1.0 > insight@0.3.1 > request@2.27.0 > tunnel-agent@0.3.0
  • Introduced through: yo@1.1.0 > yeoman-generator@0.15.0 > request@2.30.0 > tunnel-agent@0.3.0
  • Introduced through: hapi@1.1.0 > request@2.21.0 > tunnel-agent@0.3.0

Overview

tunnel-agent is HTTP proxy tunneling agent. Affected versions of the package are vulnerable to Uninitialized Memory Exposure.

A possible memory disclosure vulnerability exists when a value of type number is used to set the proxy.auth option of a request request and results in a possible uninitialized memory exposures in the request body.

This is a result of unobstructed use of the Buffer constructor, whose insecure default constructor increases the odds of memory leakage.

Details

Constructing a Buffer class with integer N creates a Buffer of length N with raw (not "zero-ed") memory.

In the following example, the first call would allocate 100 bytes of memory, while the second example will allocate the memory needed for the string "100":

// uninitialized Buffer of length 100
x = new Buffer(100);
// initialized Buffer with value of '100'
x = new Buffer('100');

tunnel-agent's request construction uses the default Buffer constructor as-is, making it easy to append uninitialized memory to an existing list. If the value of the buffer list is exposed to users, it may expose raw server side memory, potentially holding secrets, private data and code. This is a similar vulnerability to the infamous Heartbleed flaw in OpenSSL.

Proof of concept by ChALkeR

require('request')({
  method: 'GET',
  uri: 'http://www.example.com',
  tunnel: true,
  proxy:{
      protocol: 'http:',
      host:"127.0.0.1",
      port:8080,
      auth:80
  }
});

You can read more about the insecure Buffer behavior on our blog.

Similar vulnerabilities were discovered in request, mongoose, ws and sequelize.

Remediation

Upgrade tunnel-agent to version 0.6.0 or higher.

References

Unsigned Request Headers

medium severity
  • Vulnerable module: http-signature
  • Introduced through: request@2.21.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@1.1.0 > request@2.21.0 > http-signature@0.9.11

Overview

http-signature is a Reference implementation of Joyent's HTTP Signature scheme. Affected versions of the package are vulnerable to header forgery, due to the header names not being signed. An attacker could switch the header list order and header value order ending up wit the same signature for two separate requests.

Remediation

Upgrade http-signature to version 0.10.0 or higher.

References

Fixed in 1.0.0

Cross-site Scripting (XSS)

medium severity
  • Vulnerable module: hoek
  • Introduced through: oz@0.1.2

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@0.16.0 > oz@0.1.2 > hoek@0.6.2

Overview

hoek is an npm package used as a central place to store hapi-specific utility methods. Affected versions of the package are vulnerable to Cross-site Scripting (XSS). The fix was introduced in version 0.7.3 by adding comprehensive html and javascript escaping.

Remediation

Upgrade hoek to version 0.7.3 or higher.

References

Fixed in 0.16.0

Cross-site Scripting (XSS)

medium severity
  • Vulnerable module: hapi
  • Introduced through: hapi@0.15.9

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@0.15.9

Overview

hapi is an HTTP Server framework. Affected versions of the package are vulnerable to Cross-site Scripting (XSS). They do not handle invalid payloads, allowing attackers craft malicious links or create a third party web page to inject code into the browser. The fix was introduced in version 0.16.0 by parsing the payload and verifying its validity.

Remediation

Upgrade hapi to version 0.16.0 or higher, although later versions are also susceptible to vulnerabilities. Last known safe version is 11.1.4.

References

Fixed in 0.14.0

Regular Expression Denial of Service (DoS)

medium severity
  • Vulnerable module: uglify-js
  • Introduced through: lout@0.0.3

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@0.13.3 > lout@0.0.3 > handlebars@1.0.12 > uglify-js@2.3.6

Overview

The parse() function in the uglify-js package prior to version 2.6.0 is vulnerable to regular expression denial of service (ReDoS) attacks when long inputs of certain patterns are processed.

Details

"The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a Denial of Service attack, that exploits the fact that most Regular Expression implementations may reach extreme situations that cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size). An attacker can then cause a program using a Regular Expression to enter these extreme situations and then hang for a very long time." 1

Remediation

Upgrade to version 2.6.0 or greater. If a direct dependency update is not possible, use snyk wizard to patch this vulnerability.

References

Content Injection (XSS)

medium severity
  • Vulnerable module: handlebars
  • Introduced through: lout@0.0.3

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@0.13.3 > lout@0.0.3 > handlebars@1.0.12

Overview

When using attributes without quotes in a handlebars template, an attacker can manipulate the input to introduce additional attributes, potentially executing code. This may lead to a Cross-site Scripting (XSS) vulnerability, assuming an attacker can influence the value entered into the template. If the handlebars template is used to render user-generated content, this vulnerability may escalate to a persistent XSS vulnerability.

Details

Example:

Assume handlebars was used to display user comments and avatar, using the following template: <img src={{avatarUrl}}><pre>{{comment}}</pre>

If an attacker spoofed their avatar URL and provided the following value: http://evil.org/avatar.png onload=alert(document.cookie)

The resulting HTML would be the following, triggering the script once the image loads: <img src=http://evil.org/avatar.png onload=alert(document.cookie)><pre>Gotcha!</pre>

References

Cross-site Scripting (XSS)

medium severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@0.13.3 > boom@0.2.1
  • Introduced through: hapi@0.13.3 > hawk@0.6.1 > boom@0.2.1
  • Introduced through: hapi@0.13.3 > oz@0.0.19 > boom@0.2.1
  • Introduced through: hapi@0.13.3 > cryptiles@0.0.2 > boom@0.2.1
  • Introduced through: hapi@0.13.3 > iron@0.1.1 > cryptiles@0.0.2 > boom@0.2.1
  • Introduced through: hapi@0.13.3 > oz@0.0.19 > iron@0.1.1 > cryptiles@0.0.2 > boom@0.2.1
  • Introduced through: hapi@0.13.3 > hawk@0.6.1 > cryptiles@0.0.2 > boom@0.2.1
  • Introduced through: hapi@0.13.3 > oz@0.0.19 > cryptiles@0.0.2 > boom@0.2.1
  • Introduced through: hapi@0.13.3 > iron@0.1.1 > boom@0.2.1
  • Introduced through: hapi@0.13.3 > oz@0.0.19 > iron@0.1.1 > boom@0.2.1

Overview

boom is an npm package that provides a set of utilities for returning HTTP errors. Affected versions of the package are vulnerable to Cross-site Scripting (XSS).

Remediation

Upgrade boom to version 0.3.0 or higher.

References

Improper minification of non-boolean comparisons

high severity
  • Vulnerable module: uglify-js
  • Introduced through: lout@0.0.3

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@0.13.3 > lout@0.0.3 > handlebars@1.0.12 > uglify-js@2.3.6

Overview

uglify-js is a JavaScript parser, minifier, compressor and beautifier toolkit.

Tom MacWright discovered that UglifyJS versions 2.4.23 and earlier are affected by a vulnerability which allows a specially crafted Javascript file to have altered functionality after minification. This bug was demonstrated by Yan to allow potentially malicious code to be hidden within secure code, activated by minification.

Details

In Boolean algebra, DeMorgan's laws describe the relationships between conjunctions (&&), disjunctions (||) and negations (!). In Javascript form, they state that:

 !(a && b) === (!a) || (!b)
 !(a || b) === (!a) && (!b)

The law does not hold true when one of the values is not a boolean however.

Vulnerable versions of UglifyJS do not account for this restriction, and erroneously apply the laws to a statement if it can be reduced in length by it.

Consider this authentication function:

function isTokenValid(user) {
    var timeLeft =
        !!config && // config object exists
        !!user.token && // user object has a token
        !user.token.invalidated && // token is not explicitly invalidated
        !config.uninitialized && // config is initialized
        !config.ignoreTimestamps && // don't ignore timestamps
        getTimeLeft(user.token.expiry); // > 0 if expiration is in the future

    // The token must not be expired
    return timeLeft > 0;
}

function getTimeLeft(expiry) {
  return expiry - getSystemTime();
}

When minified with a vulnerable version of UglifyJS, it will produce the following insecure output, where a token will never expire:

( Formatted for readability )

function isTokenValid(user) {
    var timeLeft = !(                       // negation
        !config                             // config object does not exist
        || !user.token                      // user object does not have a token
        || user.token.invalidated           // token is explicitly invalidated
        || config.uninitialized             // config isn't initialized
        || config.ignoreTimestamps          // ignore timestamps
        || !getTimeLeft(user.token.expiry)  // > 0 if expiration is in the future
    );
    return timeLeft > 0
}

function getTimeLeft(expiry) {
    return expiry - getSystemTime()
}

Remediation

Upgrade UglifyJS to version 2.4.24 or higher.

References

Fixed in 0.9.0

Denial of Service (DoS)

high severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: karma@0.8.4 > socket.io@0.9.19 > socket.io-client@0.9.16 > ws@0.4.32
  • Introduced through: hapi@0.8.4 > ws@0.4.32

Overview

ws is a simple to use websocket client, server and console for node.js.

Affected versions of the package are vulnerable to Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. A specially crafted value of the Sec-WebSocket-Extensions header that used Object.prototype property names as extension or parameter names could be used to make a ws server crash.

PoC:

const WebSocket = require('ws');
const net = require('net');

const wss = new WebSocket.Server({ port: 3000 }, function () {
  const payload = 'constructor';  // or ',;constructor'

  const request = [
    'GET / HTTP/1.1',
    'Connection: Upgrade',
    'Sec-WebSocket-Key: test',
    'Sec-WebSocket-Version: 8',
    `Sec-WebSocket-Extensions: ${payload}`,
    'Upgrade: websocket',
    '\r\n'
  ].join('\r\n');

  const socket = net.connect(3000, function () {
    socket.resume();
    socket.write(request);
  });
});

Remediation

Upgrade ws to version 1.1.5, 3.3.1 or higher.

References

Remote Memory Exposure

medium severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: karma@0.8.4 > socket.io@0.9.19 > socket.io-client@0.9.16 > ws@0.4.32
  • Introduced through: hapi@0.8.4 > ws@0.4.32

Overview

ws is a simple to use websocket client, server and console for node.js. Affected versions of the package are vulnerable to Uninitialized Memory Exposure.

A client side memory disclosure vulnerability exists in ping functionality of the ws service. When a client sends a ping request and provides an integer value as ping data, it will result in leaking an uninitialized memory buffer.

This is a result of unobstructed use of the Buffer constructor, whose insecure default constructor increases the odds of memory leakage.

Details

Constructing a Buffer class with integer N creates a Buffer of length N with raw (not "zero-ed") memory.

In the following example, the first call would allocate 100 bytes of memory, while the second example will allocate the memory needed for the string "100":

// uninitialized Buffer of length 100
x = new Buffer(100);
// initialized Buffer with value of '100'
x = new Buffer('100');

This would allocate 100 bytes of memory in the first example and just 3 bytes with 100 as value in the second example.

ws's ping function uses the default Buffer constructor as-is, making it easy to append uninitialized memory to an existing list. If the value of the buffer list is exposed to users, it may expose raw memory, potentially holding secrets, private data and code.

Proof of Concept:

var ws = require('ws')

var server = new ws.Server({ port: 9000 })
var client = new ws('ws://localhost:9000')

client.on('open', function () {
  console.log('open')
  client.ping(50) // this makes the client allocate an uninitialized buffer of 50 bytes and send it to the server

  client.on('pong', function (data) {
    console.log('got pong')
    console.log(data)
  })
})

You can read more about the insecure Buffer behavior on our blog.

Similar vulnerabilities were discovered in request, mongoose, ws and sequelize.

References

Denial of Service (DoS)

high severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: karma@0.8.4 > socket.io@0.9.19 > socket.io-client@0.9.16 > ws@0.4.32
  • Introduced through: hapi@0.8.4 > ws@0.4.32

Overview

The ws package does not limit the size of an incoming payload before it is processed by default. As a result, a very large payload (over 256MB in size) can lead to a failed allocation and crash the node process - enabling a Denial of Service attack.

While 256MB may seem excessive, note that the attack is likely to be sent from another server, not an end-user computer, using data-center connection speeds. In those speeds, a payload of this size can be transmitted in seconds.

Remediation

Update to version 1.1.1 or greater, which sets a default maxPayload of 100MB. If you cannot upgrade, apply a Snyk patch, or provide ws with options setting the maxPayload to an appropriate size that is smaller than 256MB.

References

Insecure Randomness

medium severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: karma@0.8.4 > socket.io@0.9.19 > socket.io-client@0.9.16 > ws@0.4.32
  • Introduced through: hapi@0.8.4 > ws@0.4.32

Overview

ws is a simple to use websocket client, server and console for node.js.

Affected versions of the package use the cryptographically insecure Math.random() which can produce predictable values and should not be used in security-sensitive context.

Details

Computers are deterministic machines, and as such are unable to produce true randomness. Pseudo-Random Number Generators (PRNGs) approximate randomness algorithmically, starting with a seed from which subsequent values are calculated.

There are two types of PRNGs: statistical and cryptographic. Statistical PRNGs provide useful statistical properties, but their output is highly predictable and forms an easy to reproduce numeric stream that is unsuitable for use in cases where security depends on generated values being unpredictable. Cryptographic PRNGs address this problem by generating output that is more difficult to predict. For a value to be cryptographically secure, it must be impossible or highly improbable for an attacker to distinguish between it and a truly random value. In general, if a PRNG algorithm is not advertised as being cryptographically secure, then it is probably a statistical PRNG and should not be used in security-sensitive contexts.

You can read more about node's insecure Math.random() in Mike Malone's post.

Remediation

Upgrade ws to version 1.1.2 or higher.

References

Fixed in 0.7.0

Cross-site Scripting (XSS)

medium severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@0.6.1 > validator@0.5.0

Overview

The validator module for Node.js contains functionality meant to filter potential XSS attacks (a filter called xss). A method of bypassing the filter via an encoded URL has been publicly disclosed. In general, because the function’s filtering is blacklist-based it is likely that other bypasses will be discovered in the future. Developers are encouraged not to use the xss filter function in this package.

Source: Node Security Project

Details

The xss() function removes the word "javascript" when contained inside an attribute. However, it does not properly handle cases where characters have been hex-encoded. As a result, it is possible to build an input that bypasses the filter but which the browser will accept as valid JavaScript.

For example, browsers interpret abc as abc.

Remediation

Upgrade to the latest version of this library. However, it should be noted that the fix for this vulnerability was to remove the xss filter functionality. Seek another library to provide proper output encoding.

References

Cross-site Scripting (XSS)

medium severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@0.6.1 > validator@0.5.0

Overview

The validator module for Node.js contains functionality meant to filter potential XSS attacks (a filter called xss). Several ways to bypass the filter were discovered. In general, because the function’s filtering is blacklist-based it is likely that other bypasses will be discovered in the future. Developers are encouraged not to use the xss filter function in this package.

Source: Node Security Project

Details

Various inputs that could bypass the filter were discovered:

Improper parsing of nested tags:

<s <onmouseover="alert(1)"> <;s onmouseover="alert(1)">This is a test</s>

Incomplete filtering of javascript: URIs:

<a href="javascriptJ a V a S c R iPt::alert(1)" "<s>">test</a>

UI Redressing:

<div style="z-index: 9999999; background-color: green; width: 100%; height: 100%">
<h1>You have won</h1>Please click the link and enter your login details:
<a href="http://example.com/">http://good.com</a>
</div>

Bypass via Nested Forbidden Strings:

<scrRedirecRedirect 302t 302ipt type="text/javascript">prompt(1);</scrRedirecRedirect 302t 302ipt>

Additional bypasses were discovered by Krzysztof Kotowicz in 2012 when auditing CodeIgniter's XSS filtering function, which this code was based off of.

Remediation

If you are a developer currently using the xss filter function from the validator package, you should consider replacing it with the escape filter function from the same package. This function replaces all instances of angle brackets (<, >), ampersands, and quotation marks, so no HTML tags will be processed.

References

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

low severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@0.6.1 > emailjs@0.3.16 > moment@1.7.0

Overview

moment is a lightweight JavaScript date library for parsing, validating, manipulating, and formatting dates.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) attacks. It used a regular expression (/[0-9]*['a-z\u00A0-\u05FF\u0700-\uD7FF\uF900-\uFDCF\uFDF0-\uFFEF]+|[\u0600-\u06FF\/]+(\s*?[\u0600-\u06FF]+){1,2}/i) in order to parse dates specified as strings. This can cause a very low impact of about 2 seconds matching time for data 50k characters long.

Details

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Many Regular Expression implementations may reach extreme situations that cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the program to enter these extreme situations by using a specially crafted input and cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

You can read more about Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) on our blog.

Remediation

Upgrade moment to version 2.19.3 or higher.

References

Buffer Overflow

medium severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@0.6.1 > validator@0.5.0

Overview

validator is a library of string validators and sanitizers.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Buffer Overflow. It used a regular expression (/^(?:[A-Z0-9+\/]{4})*(?:[A-Z0-9+\/]{2}==|[A-Z0-9+\/]{3}=|[A-Z0-9+\/]{4})$/i) in order to validate Base64 strings.

Remediation

Upgrade validator to version 5.0.0 or higher.

References

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

medium severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@0.6.1 > emailjs@0.3.16 > moment@1.7.0

Overview

moment is a lightweight JavaScript date library for parsing, validating, manipulating, and formatting dates.

Affected versions of the package are vulnerable to Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) attacks for any locale that has separate format and standalone options and format input can be controlled by the user.

An attacker can provide a specially crafted input to the format function, which nearly matches the pattern being matched. This will cause the regular expression matching to take a long time, all the while occupying the event loop and preventing it from processing other requests and making the server unavailable (a Denial of Service attack).

Disclosure Timeline

  • October 19th, 2016 - Reported the issue to package owner.
  • October 19th, 2016 - Issue acknowledged by package owner.
  • October 24th, 2016 - Issue fixed and version 2.15.2 released.

References

Regular Expression Denial of Service (DoS)

high severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@0.6.1 > validator@0.5.0

Overview

validator is a library of string validators and sanitizers.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) attacks. It used a regular expression in order to validate URLs.

Details

Denial of Service (DoS) describes a family of attacks, all aimed at making a system inaccessible to its original and legitimate users. There are many types of DoS attacks, ranging from trying to clog the network pipes to the system by generating a large volume of traffic from many machines (a Distributed Denial of Service - DDoS - attack) to sending crafted requests that cause a system to crash or take a disproportional amount of time to process.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Regular expressions are incredibly powerful, but they aren't very intuitive and can ultimately end up making it easy for attackers to take your site down.

Let’s take the following regular expression as an example:

regex = /A(B|C+)+D/

This regular expression accomplishes the following:

  • A The string must start with the letter 'A'
  • (B|C+)+ The string must then follow the letter A with either the letter 'B' or some number of occurrences of the letter 'C' (the + matches one or more times). The + at the end of this section states that we can look for one or more matches of this section.
  • D Finally, we ensure this section of the string ends with a 'D'

The expression would match inputs such as ABBD, ABCCCCD, ABCBCCCD and ACCCCCD

It most cases, it doesn't take very long for a regex engine to find a match:

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCD")'
0.04s user 0.01s system 95% cpu 0.052 total

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCX")'
1.79s user 0.02s system 99% cpu 1.812 total

The entire process of testing it against a 30 characters long string takes around ~52ms. But when given an invalid string, it takes nearly two seconds to complete the test, over ten times as long as it took to test a valid string. The dramatic difference is due to the way regular expressions get evaluated.

Most Regex engines will work very similarly (with minor differences). The engine will match the first possible way to accept the current character and proceed to the next one. If it then fails to match the next one, it will backtrack and see if there was another way to digest the previous character. If it goes too far down the rabbit hole only to find out the string doesn’t match in the end, and if many characters have multiple valid regex paths, the number of backtracking steps can become very large, resulting in what is known as catastrophic backtracking.

Let's look at how our expression runs into this problem, using a shorter string: "ACCCX". While it seems fairly straightforward, there are still four different ways that the engine could match those three C's:

  1. CCC
  2. CC+C
  3. C+CC
  4. C+C+C.

The engine has to try each of those combinations to see if any of them potentially match against the expression. When you combine that with the other steps the engine must take, we can use RegEx 101 debugger to see the engine has to take a total of 38 steps before it can determine the string doesn't match.

From there, the number of steps the engine must use to validate a string just continues to grow.

String Number of C's Number of steps
ACCCX 3 38
ACCCCX 4 71
ACCCCCX 5 136
ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCX 14 65,553

By the time the string includes 14 C's, the engine has to take over 65,000 steps just to see if the string is valid. These extreme situations can cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size, as shown above), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

Remediation

Update to version 3.22.1 or greater.

References

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

low severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@0.6.1 > emailjs@0.3.16 > moment@1.7.0

Overview

moment is a lightweight JavaScript date library for parsing, validating, manipulating, and formatting dates.

An attacker can provide a long value to the duration function, which nearly matches the pattern being matched. This will cause the regular expression matching to take a long time, all the while occupying the event loop and preventing it from processing other requests and making the server unavailable (a Denial of Service attack).

"The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a Denial of Service attack, that exploits the fact that most Regular Expression implementations may reach extreme situations that cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size). An attacker can then cause a program using a Regular Expression to enter these extreme situations and then hang for a very long time." 1

Remediation

Upgrade moment to version 2.11.2 or greater.

References

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

low severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@0.6.1 > validator@0.5.0

Overview

validator is a library of string validators and sanitizers.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) attacks. It used a regular expression (^\s*data:([a-z]+\/[a-z0-9\-\+]+(;[a-z\-]+=[a-z0-9\-]+)?)?(;base64)?,[a-z0-9!\$&',\(\)\*\+,;=\-\._~:@\/\?%\s]*\s*$) in order to validate Data URIs. This can cause an impact of about 10 seconds matching time for data 70K characters long.

Disclosure Timeline

  • Feb 15th, 2018 - Initial Disclosure to package owner
  • Feb 16th, 2018 - Initial Response from package owner
  • Feb 18th, 2018 - Fix issued
  • Feb 18th, 2018 - Vulnerability published

Details

Denial of Service (DoS) describes a family of attacks, all aimed at making a system inaccessible to its original and legitimate users. There are many types of DoS attacks, ranging from trying to clog the network pipes to the system by generating a large volume of traffic from many machines (a Distributed Denial of Service - DDoS - attack) to sending crafted requests that cause a system to crash or take a disproportional amount of time to process.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Regular expressions are incredibly powerful, but they aren't very intuitive and can ultimately end up making it easy for attackers to take your site down.

Let’s take the following regular expression as an example:

regex = /A(B|C+)+D/

This regular expression accomplishes the following:

  • A The string must start with the letter 'A'
  • (B|C+)+ The string must then follow the letter A with either the letter 'B' or some number of occurrences of the letter 'C' (the + matches one or more times). The + at the end of this section states that we can look for one or more matches of this section.
  • D Finally, we ensure this section of the string ends with a 'D'

The expression would match inputs such as ABBD, ABCCCCD, ABCBCCCD and ACCCCCD

It most cases, it doesn't take very long for a regex engine to find a match:

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCD")'
0.04s user 0.01s system 95% cpu 0.052 total

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCX")'
1.79s user 0.02s system 99% cpu 1.812 total

The entire process of testing it against a 30 characters long string takes around ~52ms. But when given an invalid string, it takes nearly two seconds to complete the test, over ten times as long as it took to test a valid string. The dramatic difference is due to the way regular expressions get evaluated.

Most Regex engines will work very similarly (with minor differences). The engine will match the first possible way to accept the current character and proceed to the next one. If it then fails to match the next one, it will backtrack and see if there was another way to digest the previous character. If it goes too far down the rabbit hole only to find out the string doesn’t match in the end, and if many characters have multiple valid regex paths, the number of backtracking steps can become very large, resulting in what is known as catastrophic backtracking.

Let's look at how our expression runs into this problem, using a shorter string: "ACCCX". While it seems fairly straightforward, there are still four different ways that the engine could match those three C's:

  1. CCC
  2. CC+C
  3. C+CC
  4. C+C+C.

The engine has to try each of those combinations to see if any of them potentially match against the expression. When you combine that with the other steps the engine must take, we can use RegEx 101 debugger to see the engine has to take a total of 38 steps before it can determine the string doesn't match.

From there, the number of steps the engine must use to validate a string just continues to grow.

String Number of C's Number of steps
ACCCX 3 38
ACCCCX 4 71
ACCCCCX 5 136
ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCX 14 65,553

By the time the string includes 14 C's, the engine has to take over 65,000 steps just to see if the string is valid. These extreme situations can cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size, as shown above), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

Remediation

Upgrade validator to version 9.4.1 or higher.

References

Fixed in 0.3.0

Denial of Service (DoS)

medium severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@0.2.1 > express@2.5.11 > connect@1.9.2

Overview

connect is a high performance middleware framework.

Affected versions of the package are vulnerable to Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. It is possible to crash the node server by requesting a url with a trailing backslash in the end.

Remediation

Upgrade connect to version 2.0.0 or higher.

References

methodOverride Middleware Reflected Cross-site Scripting (XSS)

medium severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@0.2.1 > express@2.5.11 > connect@1.9.2

Overview

Connect is a stack of middleware that is executed in order in each request.

The "methodOverride" middleware allows the http post to override the method of the request with the value of the _method post key or with the header "x-http-method-override".

Because the user post input was not checked, req.method could contain any kind of value. Because the req.method did not match any common method VERB, connect answered with a 404 page containing the "Cannot [method] [url]" content. The method was not properly encoded for output in the browser.

Source: Node Security Project

Details

Example

~ curl "localhost:3000" -d "_method=<script src=http://nodesecurity.io/xss.js></script>"
Cannot <SCRIPT SRC=HTTP://NODESECURITY.IO/XSS.JS></SCRIPT> /

Mitigation factors

Update to the newest version of Connect or disable methodOverride. It is not possible to avoid the vulnerability if you have enabled this middleware in the top of your stack.

History

Cross-site Scripting (XSS)

medium severity

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: hapi@0.2.1 > express@2.5.11

Overview

express is a minimalist web framework.

Affected versions of this package do not enforce the user's browser to set a specific charset in the content-type header while displaying 400 level response messages. This could be used by remote attackers to perform a cross-site scripting attack, by using non-standard encodings like UTF-7.

Recommendations

Update express to 3.11.0, 4.5.0 or higher.

References