Vulnerabilities

5 via 5 paths

Dependencies

269

Source

npm

Find, fix and prevent vulnerabilities in your code.

Severity
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Status
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high severity

Remote Code Execution (RCE)

  • Vulnerable module: shell-quote
  • Introduced through: @next/react-dev-overlay@11.1.1-canary.18

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: next@11.1.1-canary.18 @next/react-dev-overlay@11.1.1-canary.18 shell-quote@1.7.2

Overview

shell-quote is a package used to quote and parse shell commands.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Remote Code Execution (RCE). An attacker can inject unescaped shell metacharacters through a regex designed to support Windows drive letters. If the output of this package is passed to a real shell as a quoted argument to a command with exec(), an attacker can inject arbitrary commands. This is because the Windows drive letter regex character class is {A-z] instead of the correct {A-Za-z]. Several shell metacharacters exist in the space between capital letter Z and lower case letter a, such as the backtick character.

Remediation

Upgrade shell-quote to version 1.7.3 or higher.

References

high severity

Denial of Service (DoS)

  • Vulnerable module: next
  • Introduced through: next@11.1.1-canary.18

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: next@11.1.1-canary.18
    Remediation: Upgrade to next@11.1.3.

Overview

next is a react framework.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Denial of Service (DoS) due to mishandling of invalid URLs. Note: This vulnerability is only possible for Node.js versions of 15.0.0 and above. Also, deployments on Vercel (vercel.com) are not affected along with similar environments where invalid requests are filtered before reaching Next.js.

Details

Denial of Service (DoS) describes a family of attacks, all aimed at making a system inaccessible to its intended and legitimate users.

Unlike other vulnerabilities, DoS attacks usually do not aim at breaching security. Rather, they are focused on making websites and services unavailable to genuine users resulting in downtime.

One popular Denial of Service vulnerability is DDoS (a Distributed Denial of Service), an attack that attempts to clog network pipes to the system by generating a large volume of traffic from many machines.

When it comes to open source libraries, DoS vulnerabilities allow attackers to trigger such a crash or crippling of the service by using a flaw either in the application code or from the use of open source libraries.

Two common types of DoS vulnerabilities:

  • High CPU/Memory Consumption- An attacker sending crafted requests that could cause the system to take a disproportionate amount of time to process. For example, commons-fileupload:commons-fileupload.

  • Crash - An attacker sending crafted requests that could cause the system to crash. For Example, npm ws package

Remediation

Upgrade next to version 12.0.5, 11.1.3 or higher.

References

medium severity

Information Exposure

  • Vulnerable module: node-fetch
  • Introduced through: node-fetch@2.6.1

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: next@11.1.1-canary.18 node-fetch@2.6.1
    Remediation: Upgrade to next@11.1.4.

Overview

node-fetch is a light-weight module that brings window.fetch to node.js

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Information Exposure when fetching a remote url with Cookie, if it get a Location response header, it will follow that url and try to fetch that url with provided cookie. This can lead to forwarding secure headers to 3th party.

Remediation

Upgrade node-fetch to version 2.6.7, 3.1.1 or higher.

References

medium severity

User Interface (UI) Misrepresentation of Critical Information

  • Vulnerable module: next
  • Introduced through: next@11.1.1-canary.18

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: next@11.1.1-canary.18
    Remediation: Upgrade to next@12.1.0.

Overview

next is a react framework.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to User Interface (UI) Misrepresentation of Critical Information due to improper CSP (content security policy).

Note: In order to be affected ALL of the following must be true:

  1. Next.js between version 10.0.0 and 12.0.10.

  2. The next.config.js file has images.domains array assigned.

  3. The image host assigned in images.domains allows user-provided SVG

Not affected: The next.config.js file has images.loader assigned to something other than "default".

Remediation

Upgrade next to version 12.1.0 or higher.

References

medium severity

Cross-site Scripting (XSS)

  • Vulnerable module: next
  • Introduced through: next@11.1.1-canary.18

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: next@11.1.1-canary.18
    Remediation: Upgrade to next@11.1.1.

Overview

next is a react framework.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Cross-site Scripting (XSS) via the Image Optimization API. In order for an instance to be affected by this issue, the next.config.js file must have images.domains array assigned. Additionally, the image host assigned in images.domains must allow user-provided SVG. If the next.config.js file has images.loader assigned to something other than the default, the instance is not affected by this vulnerability.

Details

A cross-site scripting attack occurs when the attacker tricks a legitimate web-based application or site to accept a request as originating from a trusted source.

This is done by escaping the context of the web application; the web application then delivers that data to its users along with other trusted dynamic content, without validating it. The browser unknowingly executes malicious script on the client side (through client-side languages; usually JavaScript or HTML) in order to perform actions that are otherwise typically blocked by the browser’s Same Origin Policy.

Injecting malicious code is the most prevalent manner by which XSS is exploited; for this reason, escaping characters in order to prevent this manipulation is the top method for securing code against this vulnerability.

Escaping means that the application is coded to mark key characters, and particularly key characters included in user input, to prevent those characters from being interpreted in a dangerous context. For example, in HTML, < can be coded as &lt; and > can be coded as &gt; in order to be interpreted and displayed as themselves in text, while within the code itself, they are used for HTML tags. If malicious content is injected into an application that escapes special characters and that malicious content uses < and > as HTML tags, those characters are nonetheless not interpreted as HTML tags by the browser if they’ve been correctly escaped in the application code and in this way the attempted attack is diverted.

The most prominent use of XSS is to steal cookies (source: OWASP HttpOnly) and hijack user sessions, but XSS exploits have been used to expose sensitive information, enable access to privileged services and functionality and deliver malware.

Types of attacks

There are a few methods by which XSS can be manipulated:

Type Origin Description
Stored Server The malicious code is inserted in the application (usually as a link) by the attacker. The code is activated every time a user clicks the link.
Reflected Server The attacker delivers a malicious link externally from the vulnerable web site application to a user. When clicked, malicious code is sent to the vulnerable web site, which reflects the attack back to the user’s browser.
DOM-based Client The attacker forces the user’s browser to render a malicious page. The data in the page itself delivers the cross-site scripting data.
Mutated The attacker injects code that appears safe, but is then rewritten and modified by the browser, while parsing the markup. An example is rebalancing unclosed quotation marks or even adding quotation marks to unquoted parameters.

Affected environments

The following environments are susceptible to an XSS attack:

  • Web servers
  • Application servers
  • Web application environments

How to prevent

This section describes the top best practices designed to specifically protect your code:

  • Sanitize data input in an HTTP request before reflecting it back, ensuring all data is validated, filtered or escaped before echoing anything back to the user, such as the values of query parameters during searches.
  • Convert special characters such as ?, &, /, <, > and spaces to their respective HTML or URL encoded equivalents.
  • Give users the option to disable client-side scripts.
  • Redirect invalid requests.
  • Detect simultaneous logins, including those from two separate IP addresses, and invalidate those sessions.
  • Use and enforce a Content Security Policy (source: Wikipedia) to disable any features that might be manipulated for an XSS attack.
  • Read the documentation for any of the libraries referenced in your code to understand which elements allow for embedded HTML.

Remediation

Upgrade next to version 11.1.1 or higher.

References