compodoc@0.0.9

Vulnerabilities

39 via 414 paths

Dependencies

579

Source

npm

Find, fix and prevent vulnerabilities in your code.

Severity
  • 2
  • 17
  • 19
  • 1
Status
  • 39
  • 0
  • 0

critical severity

Authentication Bypass

  • Vulnerable module: http-auth
  • Introduced through: live-server@1.2.1

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 live-server@1.2.1 http-auth@3.1.3

Overview

http-auth is a package for HTTP basic and digest access authentication.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Authentication Bypass. If a client specifies large nonceCount then this request can be replayed nonceCount - serverNonce[2] times.

Remediation

Upgrade http-auth to version 3.2.4 or higher.

References

critical severity

Prototype Pollution

  • Vulnerable module: lodash
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 vinyl-fs@0.3.14 glob-watcher@0.0.6 gaze@0.5.2 globule@0.1.0 lodash@1.0.2

Overview

lodash is a modern JavaScript utility library delivering modularity, performance, & extras.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Prototype Pollution in zipObjectDeep due to an incomplete fix for CVE-2020-8203.

Details

Prototype Pollution is a vulnerability affecting JavaScript. Prototype Pollution refers to the ability to inject properties into existing JavaScript language construct prototypes, such as objects. JavaScript allows all Object attributes to be altered, including their magical attributes such as _proto_, constructor and prototype. An attacker manipulates these attributes to overwrite, or pollute, a JavaScript application object prototype of the base object by injecting other values. Properties on the Object.prototype are then inherited by all the JavaScript objects through the prototype chain. When that happens, this leads to either denial of service by triggering JavaScript exceptions, or it tampers with the application source code to force the code path that the attacker injects, thereby leading to remote code execution.

There are two main ways in which the pollution of prototypes occurs:

  • Unsafe Object recursive merge
  • Property definition by path

Unsafe Object recursive merge

The logic of a vulnerable recursive merge function follows the following high-level model:

merge (target, source)

  foreach property of source

    if property exists and is an object on both the target and the source

      merge(target[property], source[property])

    else

      target[property] = source[property]

When the source object contains a property named _proto_ defined with Object.defineProperty() , the condition that checks if the property exists and is an object on both the target and the source passes and the merge recurses with the target, being the prototype of Object and the source of Object as defined by the attacker. Properties are then copied on the Object prototype.

Clone operations are a special sub-class of unsafe recursive merges, which occur when a recursive merge is conducted on an empty object: merge({},source).

lodash and Hoek are examples of libraries susceptible to recursive merge attacks.

Property definition by path

There are a few JavaScript libraries that use an API to define property values on an object based on a given path. The function that is generally affected contains this signature: theFunction(object, path, value)

If the attacker can control the value of “path”, they can set this value to _proto_.myValue. myValue is then assigned to the prototype of the class of the object.

Types of attacks

There are a few methods by which Prototype Pollution can be manipulated:

Type Origin Short description
Denial of service (DoS) Client This is the most likely attack.
DoS occurs when Object holds generic functions that are implicitly called for various operations (for example, toString and valueOf).
The attacker pollutes Object.prototype.someattr and alters its state to an unexpected value such as Int or Object. In this case, the code fails and is likely to cause a denial of service.
For example: if an attacker pollutes Object.prototype.toString by defining it as an integer, if the codebase at any point was reliant on someobject.toString() it would fail.
Remote Code Execution Client Remote code execution is generally only possible in cases where the codebase evaluates a specific attribute of an object, and then executes that evaluation.
For example: eval(someobject.someattr). In this case, if the attacker pollutes Object.prototype.someattr they are likely to be able to leverage this in order to execute code.
Property Injection Client The attacker pollutes properties that the codebase relies on for their informative value, including security properties such as cookies or tokens.
For example: if a codebase checks privileges for someuser.isAdmin, then when the attacker pollutes Object.prototype.isAdmin and sets it to equal true, they can then achieve admin privileges.

Affected environments

The following environments are susceptible to a Prototype Pollution attack:

  • Application server
  • Web server

How to prevent

  1. Freeze the prototype— use Object.freeze (Object.prototype).
  2. Require schema validation of JSON input.
  3. Avoid using unsafe recursive merge functions.
  4. Consider using objects without prototypes (for example, Object.create(null)), breaking the prototype chain and preventing pollution.
  5. As a best practice use Map instead of Object.

For more information on this vulnerability type:

Arteau, Oliver. “JavaScript prototype pollution attack in NodeJS application.” GitHub, 26 May 2018

Remediation

Upgrade lodash to version 4.17.20 or higher.

References

high severity
new

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

  • Vulnerable module: ansi-regex
  • Introduced through: gulp-util@3.0.8 and angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 gulp-util@3.0.8 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 gulp-util@3.0.8 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 gulp-util@3.0.7 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 gulp-util@3.0.7 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 phantomjs@1.9.20 request@2.67.0 har-validator@2.0.6 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 phantomjs@1.9.20 request@2.67.0 har-validator@2.0.6 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 logalot@2.1.0 squeak@1.3.0 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 logalot@2.1.0 squeak@1.3.0 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 logalot@2.1.0 squeak@1.3.0 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 logalot@2.1.0 squeak@1.3.0 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-svgo@4.2.1 svgo@0.6.6 csso@2.0.0 clap@1.2.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 logalot@2.1.0 squeak@1.3.0 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 logalot@2.1.0 squeak@1.3.0 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 logalot@2.1.0 squeak@1.3.0 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 logalot@2.1.0 squeak@1.3.0 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-svgo@4.2.1 svgo@0.6.6 csso@2.0.0 clap@1.2.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 gulp-util@3.0.8 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 gulp-util@3.0.8 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 gulp-util@3.0.8 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 gulp-util@3.0.8 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 gulp-util@3.0.8 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 gulp-util@3.0.8 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 gulp-util@3.0.8 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 gulp-util@3.0.8 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 gulp-util@3.0.8 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 gulp-util@3.0.8 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 gulp-util@3.0.8 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 gulp-util@3.0.8 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 gulp-util@3.0.8 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 gulp-util@3.0.8 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 gulp-util@3.0.8 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 gulp-util@3.0.8 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 has-ansi@2.0.0 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tarbz2@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-targz@3.1.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-unzip@3.4.0 strip-dirs@1.1.1 sum-up@1.0.3 chalk@1.1.3 strip-ansi@3.0.1 ansi-regex@2.1.1

Overview

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) due to the sub-patterns [[\\]()#;?]* and (?:;[-a-zA-Z\\d\\/#&.:=?%@~_]*)*.

PoC

import ansiRegex from 'ansi-regex';

for(var i = 1; i <= 50000; i++) {
    var time = Date.now();
    var attack_str = "\u001B["+";".repeat(i*10000);
    ansiRegex().test(attack_str)
    var time_cost = Date.now() - time;
    console.log("attack_str.length: " + attack_str.length + ": " + time_cost+" ms")
}

Details

Denial of Service (DoS) describes a family of attacks, all aimed at making a system inaccessible to its original and legitimate users. There are many types of DoS attacks, ranging from trying to clog the network pipes to the system by generating a large volume of traffic from many machines (a Distributed Denial of Service - DDoS - attack) to sending crafted requests that cause a system to crash or take a disproportional amount of time to process.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Regular expressions are incredibly powerful, but they aren't very intuitive and can ultimately end up making it easy for attackers to take your site down.

Let’s take the following regular expression as an example:

regex = /A(B|C+)+D/

This regular expression accomplishes the following:

  • A The string must start with the letter 'A'
  • (B|C+)+ The string must then follow the letter A with either the letter 'B' or some number of occurrences of the letter 'C' (the + matches one or more times). The + at the end of this section states that we can look for one or more matches of this section.
  • D Finally, we ensure this section of the string ends with a 'D'

The expression would match inputs such as ABBD, ABCCCCD, ABCBCCCD and ACCCCCD

It most cases, it doesn't take very long for a regex engine to find a match:

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCD")'
0.04s user 0.01s system 95% cpu 0.052 total

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCX")'
1.79s user 0.02s system 99% cpu 1.812 total

The entire process of testing it against a 30 characters long string takes around ~52ms. But when given an invalid string, it takes nearly two seconds to complete the test, over ten times as long as it took to test a valid string. The dramatic difference is due to the way regular expressions get evaluated.

Most Regex engines will work very similarly (with minor differences). The engine will match the first possible way to accept the current character and proceed to the next one. If it then fails to match the next one, it will backtrack and see if there was another way to digest the previous character. If it goes too far down the rabbit hole only to find out the string doesn’t match in the end, and if many characters have multiple valid regex paths, the number of backtracking steps can become very large, resulting in what is known as catastrophic backtracking.

Let's look at how our expression runs into this problem, using a shorter string: "ACCCX". While it seems fairly straightforward, there are still four different ways that the engine could match those three C's:

  1. CCC
  2. CC+C
  3. C+CC
  4. C+C+C.

The engine has to try each of those combinations to see if any of them potentially match against the expression. When you combine that with the other steps the engine must take, we can use RegEx 101 debugger to see the engine has to take a total of 38 steps before it can determine the string doesn't match.

From there, the number of steps the engine must use to validate a string just continues to grow.

String Number of C's Number of steps
ACCCX 3 38
ACCCCX 4 71
ACCCCCX 5 136
ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCX 14 65,553

By the time the string includes 14 C's, the engine has to take over 65,000 steps just to see if the string is valid. These extreme situations can cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size, as shown above), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

Remediation

Upgrade ansi-regex to version 6.0.1, 5.0.1 or higher.

References

high severity

Remote Memory Exposure

  • Vulnerable module: bl
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 phantomjs@1.9.20 request@2.67.0 bl@1.0.3

Overview

bl is a library that allows you to collect buffers and access with a standard readable buffer interface.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Remote Memory Exposure. If user input ends up in consume() argument and can become negative, BufferList state can be corrupted, tricking it into exposing uninitialized memory via regular .slice() calls.

PoC by chalker

const { BufferList } = require('bl')
const secret = require('crypto').randomBytes(256)
for (let i = 0; i < 1e6; i++) {
  const clone = Buffer.from(secret)
  const bl = new BufferList()
  bl.append(Buffer.from('a'))
  bl.consume(-1024)
  const buf = bl.slice(1)
  if (buf.indexOf(clone) !== -1) {
    console.error(`Match (at ${i})`, buf)
  }
}

Remediation

Upgrade bl to version 2.2.1, 3.0.1, 4.0.3, 1.2.3 or higher.

References

high severity

Arbitrary Code Execution

  • Vulnerable module: js-yaml
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-svgo@4.2.1 svgo@0.6.6 js-yaml@3.6.1

Overview

js-yaml is a human-friendly data serialization language.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Arbitrary Code Execution. When an object with an executable toString() property used as a map key, it will execute that function. This happens only for load(), which should not be used with untrusted data anyway. safeLoad() is not affected because it can't parse functions.

Remediation

Upgrade js-yaml to version 3.13.1 or higher.

References

high severity

Command Injection

  • Vulnerable module: lodash
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 vinyl-fs@0.3.14 glob-watcher@0.0.6 gaze@0.5.2 globule@0.1.0 lodash@1.0.2

Overview

lodash is a modern JavaScript utility library delivering modularity, performance, & extras.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Command Injection via template.

PoC

var _ = require('lodash');

_.template('', { variable: '){console.log(process.env)}; with(obj' })()

Remediation

Upgrade lodash to version 4.17.21 or higher.

References

high severity

Prototype Pollution

  • Vulnerable module: lodash
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 vinyl-fs@0.3.14 glob-watcher@0.0.6 gaze@0.5.2 globule@0.1.0 lodash@1.0.2

Overview

lodash is a modern JavaScript utility library delivering modularity, performance, & extras.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Prototype Pollution. The function defaultsDeep could be tricked into adding or modifying properties of Object.prototype using a constructor payload.

PoC by Snyk

const mergeFn = require('lodash').defaultsDeep;
const payload = '{"constructor": {"prototype": {"a0": true}}}'

function check() {
    mergeFn({}, JSON.parse(payload));
    if (({})[`a0`] === true) {
        console.log(`Vulnerable to Prototype Pollution via ${payload}`);
    }
  }

check();

For more information, check out our blog post

Details

Prototype Pollution is a vulnerability affecting JavaScript. Prototype Pollution refers to the ability to inject properties into existing JavaScript language construct prototypes, such as objects. JavaScript allows all Object attributes to be altered, including their magical attributes such as _proto_, constructor and prototype. An attacker manipulates these attributes to overwrite, or pollute, a JavaScript application object prototype of the base object by injecting other values. Properties on the Object.prototype are then inherited by all the JavaScript objects through the prototype chain. When that happens, this leads to either denial of service by triggering JavaScript exceptions, or it tampers with the application source code to force the code path that the attacker injects, thereby leading to remote code execution.

There are two main ways in which the pollution of prototypes occurs:

  • Unsafe Object recursive merge
  • Property definition by path

Unsafe Object recursive merge

The logic of a vulnerable recursive merge function follows the following high-level model:

merge (target, source)

  foreach property of source

    if property exists and is an object on both the target and the source

      merge(target[property], source[property])

    else

      target[property] = source[property]

When the source object contains a property named _proto_ defined with Object.defineProperty() , the condition that checks if the property exists and is an object on both the target and the source passes and the merge recurses with the target, being the prototype of Object and the source of Object as defined by the attacker. Properties are then copied on the Object prototype.

Clone operations are a special sub-class of unsafe recursive merges, which occur when a recursive merge is conducted on an empty object: merge({},source).

lodash and Hoek are examples of libraries susceptible to recursive merge attacks.

Property definition by path

There are a few JavaScript libraries that use an API to define property values on an object based on a given path. The function that is generally affected contains this signature: theFunction(object, path, value)

If the attacker can control the value of “path”, they can set this value to _proto_.myValue. myValue is then assigned to the prototype of the class of the object.

Types of attacks

There are a few methods by which Prototype Pollution can be manipulated:

Type Origin Short description
Denial of service (DoS) Client This is the most likely attack.
DoS occurs when Object holds generic functions that are implicitly called for various operations (for example, toString and valueOf).
The attacker pollutes Object.prototype.someattr and alters its state to an unexpected value such as Int or Object. In this case, the code fails and is likely to cause a denial of service.
For example: if an attacker pollutes Object.prototype.toString by defining it as an integer, if the codebase at any point was reliant on someobject.toString() it would fail.
Remote Code Execution Client Remote code execution is generally only possible in cases where the codebase evaluates a specific attribute of an object, and then executes that evaluation.
For example: eval(someobject.someattr). In this case, if the attacker pollutes Object.prototype.someattr they are likely to be able to leverage this in order to execute code.
Property Injection Client The attacker pollutes properties that the codebase relies on for their informative value, including security properties such as cookies or tokens.
For example: if a codebase checks privileges for someuser.isAdmin, then when the attacker pollutes Object.prototype.isAdmin and sets it to equal true, they can then achieve admin privileges.

Affected environments

The following environments are susceptible to a Prototype Pollution attack:

  • Application server
  • Web server

How to prevent

  1. Freeze the prototype— use Object.freeze (Object.prototype).
  2. Require schema validation of JSON input.
  3. Avoid using unsafe recursive merge functions.
  4. Consider using objects without prototypes (for example, Object.create(null)), breaking the prototype chain and preventing pollution.
  5. As a best practice use Map instead of Object.

For more information on this vulnerability type:

Arteau, Oliver. “JavaScript prototype pollution attack in NodeJS application.” GitHub, 26 May 2018

Remediation

Upgrade lodash to version 4.17.12 or higher.

References

high severity

Prototype Pollution

  • Vulnerable module: lodash
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 vinyl-fs@0.3.14 glob-watcher@0.0.6 gaze@0.5.2 globule@0.1.0 lodash@1.0.2

Overview

lodash is a modern JavaScript utility library delivering modularity, performance, & extras.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Prototype Pollution via the setWith and set functions.

PoC by awarau

  • Create a JS file with this contents:
    lod = require('lodash')
    lod.setWith({}, "__proto__[test]", "123")
    lod.set({}, "__proto__[test2]", "456")
    console.log(Object.prototype)
    
  • Execute it with node
  • Observe that test and test2 is now in the Object.prototype.

Details

Prototype Pollution is a vulnerability affecting JavaScript. Prototype Pollution refers to the ability to inject properties into existing JavaScript language construct prototypes, such as objects. JavaScript allows all Object attributes to be altered, including their magical attributes such as _proto_, constructor and prototype. An attacker manipulates these attributes to overwrite, or pollute, a JavaScript application object prototype of the base object by injecting other values. Properties on the Object.prototype are then inherited by all the JavaScript objects through the prototype chain. When that happens, this leads to either denial of service by triggering JavaScript exceptions, or it tampers with the application source code to force the code path that the attacker injects, thereby leading to remote code execution.

There are two main ways in which the pollution of prototypes occurs:

  • Unsafe Object recursive merge
  • Property definition by path

Unsafe Object recursive merge

The logic of a vulnerable recursive merge function follows the following high-level model:

merge (target, source)

  foreach property of source

    if property exists and is an object on both the target and the source

      merge(target[property], source[property])

    else

      target[property] = source[property]

When the source object contains a property named _proto_ defined with Object.defineProperty() , the condition that checks if the property exists and is an object on both the target and the source passes and the merge recurses with the target, being the prototype of Object and the source of Object as defined by the attacker. Properties are then copied on the Object prototype.

Clone operations are a special sub-class of unsafe recursive merges, which occur when a recursive merge is conducted on an empty object: merge({},source).

lodash and Hoek are examples of libraries susceptible to recursive merge attacks.

Property definition by path

There are a few JavaScript libraries that use an API to define property values on an object based on a given path. The function that is generally affected contains this signature: theFunction(object, path, value)

If the attacker can control the value of “path”, they can set this value to _proto_.myValue. myValue is then assigned to the prototype of the class of the object.

Types of attacks

There are a few methods by which Prototype Pollution can be manipulated:

Type Origin Short description
Denial of service (DoS) Client This is the most likely attack.
DoS occurs when Object holds generic functions that are implicitly called for various operations (for example, toString and valueOf).
The attacker pollutes Object.prototype.someattr and alters its state to an unexpected value such as Int or Object. In this case, the code fails and is likely to cause a denial of service.
For example: if an attacker pollutes Object.prototype.toString by defining it as an integer, if the codebase at any point was reliant on someobject.toString() it would fail.
Remote Code Execution Client Remote code execution is generally only possible in cases where the codebase evaluates a specific attribute of an object, and then executes that evaluation.
For example: eval(someobject.someattr). In this case, if the attacker pollutes Object.prototype.someattr they are likely to be able to leverage this in order to execute code.
Property Injection Client The attacker pollutes properties that the codebase relies on for their informative value, including security properties such as cookies or tokens.
For example: if a codebase checks privileges for someuser.isAdmin, then when the attacker pollutes Object.prototype.isAdmin and sets it to equal true, they can then achieve admin privileges.

Affected environments

The following environments are susceptible to a Prototype Pollution attack:

  • Application server
  • Web server

How to prevent

  1. Freeze the prototype— use Object.freeze (Object.prototype).
  2. Require schema validation of JSON input.
  3. Avoid using unsafe recursive merge functions.
  4. Consider using objects without prototypes (for example, Object.create(null)), breaking the prototype chain and preventing pollution.
  5. As a best practice use Map instead of Object.

For more information on this vulnerability type:

Arteau, Oliver. “JavaScript prototype pollution attack in NodeJS application.” GitHub, 26 May 2018

Remediation

Upgrade lodash to version 4.17.17 or higher.

References

high severity

Prototype Pollution

  • Vulnerable module: lodash
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 vinyl-fs@0.3.14 glob-watcher@0.0.6 gaze@0.5.2 globule@0.1.0 lodash@1.0.2

Overview

lodash is a modern JavaScript utility library delivering modularity, performance, & extras.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Prototype Pollution. The functions merge, mergeWith, and defaultsDeep could be tricked into adding or modifying properties of Object.prototype. This is due to an incomplete fix to CVE-2018-3721.

Details

Prototype Pollution is a vulnerability affecting JavaScript. Prototype Pollution refers to the ability to inject properties into existing JavaScript language construct prototypes, such as objects. JavaScript allows all Object attributes to be altered, including their magical attributes such as _proto_, constructor and prototype. An attacker manipulates these attributes to overwrite, or pollute, a JavaScript application object prototype of the base object by injecting other values. Properties on the Object.prototype are then inherited by all the JavaScript objects through the prototype chain. When that happens, this leads to either denial of service by triggering JavaScript exceptions, or it tampers with the application source code to force the code path that the attacker injects, thereby leading to remote code execution.

There are two main ways in which the pollution of prototypes occurs:

  • Unsafe Object recursive merge
  • Property definition by path

Unsafe Object recursive merge

The logic of a vulnerable recursive merge function follows the following high-level model:

merge (target, source)

  foreach property of source

    if property exists and is an object on both the target and the source

      merge(target[property], source[property])

    else

      target[property] = source[property]

When the source object contains a property named _proto_ defined with Object.defineProperty() , the condition that checks if the property exists and is an object on both the target and the source passes and the merge recurses with the target, being the prototype of Object and the source of Object as defined by the attacker. Properties are then copied on the Object prototype.

Clone operations are a special sub-class of unsafe recursive merges, which occur when a recursive merge is conducted on an empty object: merge({},source).

lodash and Hoek are examples of libraries susceptible to recursive merge attacks.

Property definition by path

There are a few JavaScript libraries that use an API to define property values on an object based on a given path. The function that is generally affected contains this signature: theFunction(object, path, value)

If the attacker can control the value of “path”, they can set this value to _proto_.myValue. myValue is then assigned to the prototype of the class of the object.

Types of attacks

There are a few methods by which Prototype Pollution can be manipulated:

Type Origin Short description
Denial of service (DoS) Client This is the most likely attack.
DoS occurs when Object holds generic functions that are implicitly called for various operations (for example, toString and valueOf).
The attacker pollutes Object.prototype.someattr and alters its state to an unexpected value such as Int or Object. In this case, the code fails and is likely to cause a denial of service.
For example: if an attacker pollutes Object.prototype.toString by defining it as an integer, if the codebase at any point was reliant on someobject.toString() it would fail.
Remote Code Execution Client Remote code execution is generally only possible in cases where the codebase evaluates a specific attribute of an object, and then executes that evaluation.
For example: eval(someobject.someattr). In this case, if the attacker pollutes Object.prototype.someattr they are likely to be able to leverage this in order to execute code.
Property Injection Client The attacker pollutes properties that the codebase relies on for their informative value, including security properties such as cookies or tokens.
For example: if a codebase checks privileges for someuser.isAdmin, then when the attacker pollutes Object.prototype.isAdmin and sets it to equal true, they can then achieve admin privileges.

Affected environments

The following environments are susceptible to a Prototype Pollution attack:

  • Application server
  • Web server

How to prevent

  1. Freeze the prototype— use Object.freeze (Object.prototype).
  2. Require schema validation of JSON input.
  3. Avoid using unsafe recursive merge functions.
  4. Consider using objects without prototypes (for example, Object.create(null)), breaking the prototype chain and preventing pollution.
  5. As a best practice use Map instead of Object.

For more information on this vulnerability type:

Arteau, Oliver. “JavaScript prototype pollution attack in NodeJS application.” GitHub, 26 May 2018

Remediation

Upgrade lodash to version 4.17.11 or higher.

References

high severity

Command Injection

  • Vulnerable module: lodash.template
  • Introduced through: gulp-util@3.0.8 and angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 gulp-util@3.0.8 lodash.template@3.6.2
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 gulp-util@3.0.7 lodash.template@3.6.2
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 gulp-util@3.0.8 lodash.template@3.6.2
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 gulp-util@3.0.8 lodash.template@3.6.2
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 gulp-util@3.0.8 lodash.template@3.6.2
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 gulp-util@3.0.8 lodash.template@3.6.2
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 gulp-util@3.0.8 lodash.template@3.6.2
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 gulp-util@3.0.8 lodash.template@3.6.2
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 gulp-util@3.0.8 lodash.template@3.6.2
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 gulp-util@3.0.8 lodash.template@3.6.2

Overview

lodash.template is a The Lodash method _.template exported as a Node.js module.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Command Injection via template.

PoC

var _ = require('lodash');

_.template('', { variable: '){console.log(process.env)}; with(obj' })()

Remediation

There is no fixed version for lodash.template.

References

high severity

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

  • Vulnerable module: minimatch
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 vinyl-fs@0.3.14 glob-stream@3.1.18 minimatch@2.0.10
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 vinyl-fs@0.3.14 glob-stream@3.1.18 glob@4.5.3 minimatch@2.0.10
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 vinyl-fs@0.3.14 glob-watcher@0.0.6 gaze@0.5.2 globule@0.1.0 minimatch@0.2.14
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 vinyl-fs@0.3.14 glob-watcher@0.0.6 gaze@0.5.2 globule@0.1.0 glob@3.1.21 minimatch@0.2.14

Overview

minimatch is a minimal matching utility.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) via complicated and illegal regexes.

Details

Denial of Service (DoS) describes a family of attacks, all aimed at making a system inaccessible to its original and legitimate users. There are many types of DoS attacks, ranging from trying to clog the network pipes to the system by generating a large volume of traffic from many machines (a Distributed Denial of Service - DDoS - attack) to sending crafted requests that cause a system to crash or take a disproportional amount of time to process.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Regular expressions are incredibly powerful, but they aren't very intuitive and can ultimately end up making it easy for attackers to take your site down.

Let’s take the following regular expression as an example:

regex = /A(B|C+)+D/

This regular expression accomplishes the following:

  • A The string must start with the letter 'A'
  • (B|C+)+ The string must then follow the letter A with either the letter 'B' or some number of occurrences of the letter 'C' (the + matches one or more times). The + at the end of this section states that we can look for one or more matches of this section.
  • D Finally, we ensure this section of the string ends with a 'D'

The expression would match inputs such as ABBD, ABCCCCD, ABCBCCCD and ACCCCCD

It most cases, it doesn't take very long for a regex engine to find a match:

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCD")'
0.04s user 0.01s system 95% cpu 0.052 total

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCX")'
1.79s user 0.02s system 99% cpu 1.812 total

The entire process of testing it against a 30 characters long string takes around ~52ms. But when given an invalid string, it takes nearly two seconds to complete the test, over ten times as long as it took to test a valid string. The dramatic difference is due to the way regular expressions get evaluated.

Most Regex engines will work very similarly (with minor differences). The engine will match the first possible way to accept the current character and proceed to the next one. If it then fails to match the next one, it will backtrack and see if there was another way to digest the previous character. If it goes too far down the rabbit hole only to find out the string doesn’t match in the end, and if many characters have multiple valid regex paths, the number of backtracking steps can become very large, resulting in what is known as catastrophic backtracking.

Let's look at how our expression runs into this problem, using a shorter string: "ACCCX". While it seems fairly straightforward, there are still four different ways that the engine could match those three C's:

  1. CCC
  2. CC+C
  3. C+CC
  4. C+C+C.

The engine has to try each of those combinations to see if any of them potentially match against the expression. When you combine that with the other steps the engine must take, we can use RegEx 101 debugger to see the engine has to take a total of 38 steps before it can determine the string doesn't match.

From there, the number of steps the engine must use to validate a string just continues to grow.

String Number of C's Number of steps
ACCCX 3 38
ACCCCX 4 71
ACCCCCX 5 136
ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCX 14 65,553

By the time the string includes 14 C's, the engine has to take over 65,000 steps just to see if the string is valid. These extreme situations can cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size, as shown above), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

Remediation

Upgrade minimatch to version 3.0.2 or higher.

References

high severity

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

  • Vulnerable module: minimatch
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 vinyl-fs@0.3.14 glob-stream@3.1.18 minimatch@2.0.10
    Remediation: Open PR to patch minimatch@2.0.10.
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 vinyl-fs@0.3.14 glob-stream@3.1.18 glob@4.5.3 minimatch@2.0.10
    Remediation: Open PR to patch minimatch@2.0.10.
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 vinyl-fs@0.3.14 glob-watcher@0.0.6 gaze@0.5.2 globule@0.1.0 minimatch@0.2.14
    Remediation: Open PR to patch minimatch@0.2.14.
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 vinyl-fs@0.3.14 glob-watcher@0.0.6 gaze@0.5.2 globule@0.1.0 glob@3.1.21 minimatch@0.2.14
    Remediation: Open PR to patch minimatch@0.2.14.

Overview

minimatch is a minimal matching utility.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS).

Details

Denial of Service (DoS) describes a family of attacks, all aimed at making a system inaccessible to its original and legitimate users. There are many types of DoS attacks, ranging from trying to clog the network pipes to the system by generating a large volume of traffic from many machines (a Distributed Denial of Service - DDoS - attack) to sending crafted requests that cause a system to crash or take a disproportional amount of time to process.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Regular expressions are incredibly powerful, but they aren't very intuitive and can ultimately end up making it easy for attackers to take your site down.

Let’s take the following regular expression as an example:

regex = /A(B|C+)+D/

This regular expression accomplishes the following:

  • A The string must start with the letter 'A'
  • (B|C+)+ The string must then follow the letter A with either the letter 'B' or some number of occurrences of the letter 'C' (the + matches one or more times). The + at the end of this section states that we can look for one or more matches of this section.
  • D Finally, we ensure this section of the string ends with a 'D'

The expression would match inputs such as ABBD, ABCCCCD, ABCBCCCD and ACCCCCD

It most cases, it doesn't take very long for a regex engine to find a match:

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCD")'
0.04s user 0.01s system 95% cpu 0.052 total

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCX")'
1.79s user 0.02s system 99% cpu 1.812 total

The entire process of testing it against a 30 characters long string takes around ~52ms. But when given an invalid string, it takes nearly two seconds to complete the test, over ten times as long as it took to test a valid string. The dramatic difference is due to the way regular expressions get evaluated.

Most Regex engines will work very similarly (with minor differences). The engine will match the first possible way to accept the current character and proceed to the next one. If it then fails to match the next one, it will backtrack and see if there was another way to digest the previous character. If it goes too far down the rabbit hole only to find out the string doesn’t match in the end, and if many characters have multiple valid regex paths, the number of backtracking steps can become very large, resulting in what is known as catastrophic backtracking.

Let's look at how our expression runs into this problem, using a shorter string: "ACCCX". While it seems fairly straightforward, there are still four different ways that the engine could match those three C's:

  1. CCC
  2. CC+C
  3. C+CC
  4. C+C+C.

The engine has to try each of those combinations to see if any of them potentially match against the expression. When you combine that with the other steps the engine must take, we can use RegEx 101 debugger to see the engine has to take a total of 38 steps before it can determine the string doesn't match.

From there, the number of steps the engine must use to validate a string just continues to grow.

String Number of C's Number of steps
ACCCX 3 38
ACCCCX 4 71
ACCCCCX 5 136
ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCX 14 65,553

By the time the string includes 14 C's, the engine has to take over 65,000 steps just to see if the string is valid. These extreme situations can cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size, as shown above), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

Remediation

Upgrade minimatch to version 3.0.2 or higher.

References

high severity

Prototype Override Protection Bypass

  • Vulnerable module: qs
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 phantomjs@1.9.20 request@2.67.0 qs@5.2.1

Overview

qs is a querystring parser that supports nesting and arrays, with a depth limit.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Prototype Override Protection Bypass. By default qs protects against attacks that attempt to overwrite an object's existing prototype properties, such as toString(), hasOwnProperty(),etc.

From qs documentation:

By default parameters that would overwrite properties on the object prototype are ignored, if you wish to keep the data from those fields either use plainObjects as mentioned above, or set allowPrototypes to true which will allow user input to overwrite those properties. WARNING It is generally a bad idea to enable this option as it can cause problems when attempting to use the properties that have been overwritten. Always be careful with this option.

Overwriting these properties can impact application logic, potentially allowing attackers to work around security controls, modify data, make the application unstable and more.

In versions of the package affected by this vulnerability, it is possible to circumvent this protection and overwrite prototype properties and functions by prefixing the name of the parameter with [ or ]. e.g. qs.parse("]=toString") will return {toString = true}, as a result, calling toString() on the object will throw an exception.

Example:

qs.parse('toString=foo', { allowPrototypes: false })
// {}

qs.parse("]=toString", { allowPrototypes: false })
// {toString = true} <== prototype overwritten

For more information, you can check out our blog.

Disclosure Timeline

  • February 13th, 2017 - Reported the issue to package owner.
  • February 13th, 2017 - Issue acknowledged by package owner.
  • February 16th, 2017 - Partial fix released in versions 6.0.3, 6.1.1, 6.2.2, 6.3.1.
  • March 6th, 2017 - Final fix released in versions 6.4.0,6.3.2, 6.2.3, 6.1.2 and 6.0.4

    Remediation

    Upgrade qs to version 6.0.4, 6.1.2, 6.2.3, 6.3.2 or higher.

    References

  • GitHub Commit
  • GitHub Issue

high severity
new

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

  • Vulnerable module: semver-regex
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 bin-version-check@2.1.0 bin-version@1.0.4 find-versions@1.2.1 semver-regex@1.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 bin-version-check@2.1.0 bin-version@1.0.4 find-versions@1.2.1 semver-regex@1.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 bin-version-check@2.1.0 bin-version@1.0.4 find-versions@1.2.1 semver-regex@1.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 bin-version-check@2.1.0 bin-version@1.0.4 find-versions@1.2.1 semver-regex@1.0.0

Overview

semver-regex is a Regular expression for matching semver versions

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS). This can occur when running the regex on untrusted user input in a server context.

Details

Denial of Service (DoS) describes a family of attacks, all aimed at making a system inaccessible to its original and legitimate users. There are many types of DoS attacks, ranging from trying to clog the network pipes to the system by generating a large volume of traffic from many machines (a Distributed Denial of Service - DDoS - attack) to sending crafted requests that cause a system to crash or take a disproportional amount of time to process.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Regular expressions are incredibly powerful, but they aren't very intuitive and can ultimately end up making it easy for attackers to take your site down.

Let’s take the following regular expression as an example:

regex = /A(B|C+)+D/

This regular expression accomplishes the following:

  • A The string must start with the letter 'A'
  • (B|C+)+ The string must then follow the letter A with either the letter 'B' or some number of occurrences of the letter 'C' (the + matches one or more times). The + at the end of this section states that we can look for one or more matches of this section.
  • D Finally, we ensure this section of the string ends with a 'D'

The expression would match inputs such as ABBD, ABCCCCD, ABCBCCCD and ACCCCCD

It most cases, it doesn't take very long for a regex engine to find a match:

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCD")'
0.04s user 0.01s system 95% cpu 0.052 total

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCX")'
1.79s user 0.02s system 99% cpu 1.812 total

The entire process of testing it against a 30 characters long string takes around ~52ms. But when given an invalid string, it takes nearly two seconds to complete the test, over ten times as long as it took to test a valid string. The dramatic difference is due to the way regular expressions get evaluated.

Most Regex engines will work very similarly (with minor differences). The engine will match the first possible way to accept the current character and proceed to the next one. If it then fails to match the next one, it will backtrack and see if there was another way to digest the previous character. If it goes too far down the rabbit hole only to find out the string doesn’t match in the end, and if many characters have multiple valid regex paths, the number of backtracking steps can become very large, resulting in what is known as catastrophic backtracking.

Let's look at how our expression runs into this problem, using a shorter string: "ACCCX". While it seems fairly straightforward, there are still four different ways that the engine could match those three C's:

  1. CCC
  2. CC+C
  3. C+CC
  4. C+C+C.

The engine has to try each of those combinations to see if any of them potentially match against the expression. When you combine that with the other steps the engine must take, we can use RegEx 101 debugger to see the engine has to take a total of 38 steps before it can determine the string doesn't match.

From there, the number of steps the engine must use to validate a string just continues to grow.

String Number of C's Number of steps
ACCCX 3 38
ACCCCX 4 71
ACCCCCX 5 136
ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCX 14 65,553

By the time the string includes 14 C's, the engine has to take over 65,000 steps just to see if the string is valid. These extreme situations can cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size, as shown above), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

Remediation

Upgrade semver-regex to version 4.0.1, 3.1.3 or higher.

References

high severity
new

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

  • Vulnerable module: semver-regex
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 bin-version-check@2.1.0 bin-version@1.0.4 find-versions@1.2.1 semver-regex@1.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 bin-version-check@2.1.0 bin-version@1.0.4 find-versions@1.2.1 semver-regex@1.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 bin-version-check@2.1.0 bin-version@1.0.4 find-versions@1.2.1 semver-regex@1.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 bin-version-check@2.1.0 bin-version@1.0.4 find-versions@1.2.1 semver-regex@1.0.0

Overview

semver-regex is a Regular expression for matching semver versions

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS). semverRegex function contains a regex that allows exponential backtracking.

PoC

import semverRegex from 'semver-regex';

// The following payload would take excessive CPU cycles
var payload = '0.0.0-0' + '.-------'.repeat(100000) + '@';
semverRegex().test(payload);

Details

Denial of Service (DoS) describes a family of attacks, all aimed at making a system inaccessible to its original and legitimate users. There are many types of DoS attacks, ranging from trying to clog the network pipes to the system by generating a large volume of traffic from many machines (a Distributed Denial of Service - DDoS - attack) to sending crafted requests that cause a system to crash or take a disproportional amount of time to process.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Regular expressions are incredibly powerful, but they aren't very intuitive and can ultimately end up making it easy for attackers to take your site down.

Let’s take the following regular expression as an example:

regex = /A(B|C+)+D/

This regular expression accomplishes the following:

  • A The string must start with the letter 'A'
  • (B|C+)+ The string must then follow the letter A with either the letter 'B' or some number of occurrences of the letter 'C' (the + matches one or more times). The + at the end of this section states that we can look for one or more matches of this section.
  • D Finally, we ensure this section of the string ends with a 'D'

The expression would match inputs such as ABBD, ABCCCCD, ABCBCCCD and ACCCCCD

It most cases, it doesn't take very long for a regex engine to find a match:

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCD")'
0.04s user 0.01s system 95% cpu 0.052 total

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCX")'
1.79s user 0.02s system 99% cpu 1.812 total

The entire process of testing it against a 30 characters long string takes around ~52ms. But when given an invalid string, it takes nearly two seconds to complete the test, over ten times as long as it took to test a valid string. The dramatic difference is due to the way regular expressions get evaluated.

Most Regex engines will work very similarly (with minor differences). The engine will match the first possible way to accept the current character and proceed to the next one. If it then fails to match the next one, it will backtrack and see if there was another way to digest the previous character. If it goes too far down the rabbit hole only to find out the string doesn’t match in the end, and if many characters have multiple valid regex paths, the number of backtracking steps can become very large, resulting in what is known as catastrophic backtracking.

Let's look at how our expression runs into this problem, using a shorter string: "ACCCX". While it seems fairly straightforward, there are still four different ways that the engine could match those three C's:

  1. CCC
  2. CC+C
  3. C+CC
  4. C+C+C.

The engine has to try each of those combinations to see if any of them potentially match against the expression. When you combine that with the other steps the engine must take, we can use RegEx 101 debugger to see the engine has to take a total of 38 steps before it can determine the string doesn't match.

From there, the number of steps the engine must use to validate a string just continues to grow.

String Number of C's Number of steps
ACCCX 3 38
ACCCCX 4 71
ACCCCCX 5 136
ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCX 14 65,553

By the time the string includes 14 C's, the engine has to take over 65,000 steps just to see if the string is valid. These extreme situations can cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size, as shown above), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

Remediation

Upgrade semver-regex to version 3.1.3 or higher.

References

high severity
new

Prototype Pollution

  • Vulnerable module: set-value
  • Introduced through: live-server@1.2.1

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 live-server@1.2.1 chokidar@2.1.8 braces@2.3.2 snapdragon@0.8.2 base@0.11.2 cache-base@1.0.1 set-value@2.0.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 live-server@1.2.1 chokidar@2.1.8 braces@2.3.2 snapdragon@0.8.2 base@0.11.2 cache-base@1.0.1 union-value@1.0.1 set-value@2.0.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 live-server@1.2.1 chokidar@2.1.8 anymatch@2.0.0 micromatch@3.1.10 snapdragon@0.8.2 base@0.11.2 cache-base@1.0.1 set-value@2.0.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 live-server@1.2.1 chokidar@2.1.8 readdirp@2.2.1 micromatch@3.1.10 snapdragon@0.8.2 base@0.11.2 cache-base@1.0.1 set-value@2.0.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 live-server@1.2.1 chokidar@2.1.8 anymatch@2.0.0 micromatch@3.1.10 snapdragon@0.8.2 base@0.11.2 cache-base@1.0.1 union-value@1.0.1 set-value@2.0.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 live-server@1.2.1 chokidar@2.1.8 readdirp@2.2.1 micromatch@3.1.10 snapdragon@0.8.2 base@0.11.2 cache-base@1.0.1 union-value@1.0.1 set-value@2.0.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 live-server@1.2.1 chokidar@2.1.8 anymatch@2.0.0 micromatch@3.1.10 braces@2.3.2 snapdragon@0.8.2 base@0.11.2 cache-base@1.0.1 set-value@2.0.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 live-server@1.2.1 chokidar@2.1.8 readdirp@2.2.1 micromatch@3.1.10 braces@2.3.2 snapdragon@0.8.2 base@0.11.2 cache-base@1.0.1 set-value@2.0.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 live-server@1.2.1 chokidar@2.1.8 anymatch@2.0.0 micromatch@3.1.10 extglob@2.0.4 snapdragon@0.8.2 base@0.11.2 cache-base@1.0.1 set-value@2.0.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 live-server@1.2.1 chokidar@2.1.8 readdirp@2.2.1 micromatch@3.1.10 extglob@2.0.4 snapdragon@0.8.2 base@0.11.2 cache-base@1.0.1 set-value@2.0.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 live-server@1.2.1 chokidar@2.1.8 anymatch@2.0.0 micromatch@3.1.10 nanomatch@1.2.13 snapdragon@0.8.2 base@0.11.2 cache-base@1.0.1 set-value@2.0.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 live-server@1.2.1 chokidar@2.1.8 readdirp@2.2.1 micromatch@3.1.10 nanomatch@1.2.13 snapdragon@0.8.2 base@0.11.2 cache-base@1.0.1 set-value@2.0.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 live-server@1.2.1 chokidar@2.1.8 anymatch@2.0.0 micromatch@3.1.10 braces@2.3.2 snapdragon@0.8.2 base@0.11.2 cache-base@1.0.1 union-value@1.0.1 set-value@2.0.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 live-server@1.2.1 chokidar@2.1.8 readdirp@2.2.1 micromatch@3.1.10 braces@2.3.2 snapdragon@0.8.2 base@0.11.2 cache-base@1.0.1 union-value@1.0.1 set-value@2.0.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 live-server@1.2.1 chokidar@2.1.8 anymatch@2.0.0 micromatch@3.1.10 extglob@2.0.4 snapdragon@0.8.2 base@0.11.2 cache-base@1.0.1 union-value@1.0.1 set-value@2.0.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 live-server@1.2.1 chokidar@2.1.8 readdirp@2.2.1 micromatch@3.1.10 extglob@2.0.4 snapdragon@0.8.2 base@0.11.2 cache-base@1.0.1 union-value@1.0.1 set-value@2.0.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 live-server@1.2.1 chokidar@2.1.8 anymatch@2.0.0 micromatch@3.1.10 nanomatch@1.2.13 snapdragon@0.8.2 base@0.11.2 cache-base@1.0.1 union-value@1.0.1 set-value@2.0.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 live-server@1.2.1 chokidar@2.1.8 readdirp@2.2.1 micromatch@3.1.10 nanomatch@1.2.13 snapdragon@0.8.2 base@0.11.2 cache-base@1.0.1 union-value@1.0.1 set-value@2.0.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 live-server@1.2.1 chokidar@2.1.8 anymatch@2.0.0 micromatch@3.1.10 extglob@2.0.4 expand-brackets@2.1.4 snapdragon@0.8.2 base@0.11.2 cache-base@1.0.1 set-value@2.0.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 live-server@1.2.1 chokidar@2.1.8 readdirp@2.2.1 micromatch@3.1.10 extglob@2.0.4 expand-brackets@2.1.4 snapdragon@0.8.2 base@0.11.2 cache-base@1.0.1 set-value@2.0.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 live-server@1.2.1 chokidar@2.1.8 anymatch@2.0.0 micromatch@3.1.10 extglob@2.0.4 expand-brackets@2.1.4 snapdragon@0.8.2 base@0.11.2 cache-base@1.0.1 union-value@1.0.1 set-value@2.0.1
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 live-server@1.2.1 chokidar@2.1.8 readdirp@2.2.1 micromatch@3.1.10 extglob@2.0.4 expand-brackets@2.1.4 snapdragon@0.8.2 base@0.11.2 cache-base@1.0.1 union-value@1.0.1 set-value@2.0.1

Overview

set-value is a package that creates nested values and any intermediaries using dot notation ('a.b.c') paths.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Prototype Pollution. A type confusion vulnerability can lead to a bypass of CVE-2019-10747 when the user-provided keys used in the path parameter are arrays.

PoC

const set = require("set-value")

// set({}, ['__proto__','polluted'], 'yes');
// console.log(polluted); // Error: Cannot set unsafe key: "__proto__"

set({}, [['__proto__'],'polluted'], 'yes');
console.log(polluted);

Details

Prototype Pollution is a vulnerability affecting JavaScript. Prototype Pollution refers to the ability to inject properties into existing JavaScript language construct prototypes, such as objects. JavaScript allows all Object attributes to be altered, including their magical attributes such as _proto_, constructor and prototype. An attacker manipulates these attributes to overwrite, or pollute, a JavaScript application object prototype of the base object by injecting other values. Properties on the Object.prototype are then inherited by all the JavaScript objects through the prototype chain. When that happens, this leads to either denial of service by triggering JavaScript exceptions, or it tampers with the application source code to force the code path that the attacker injects, thereby leading to remote code execution.

There are two main ways in which the pollution of prototypes occurs:

  • Unsafe Object recursive merge
  • Property definition by path

Unsafe Object recursive merge

The logic of a vulnerable recursive merge function follows the following high-level model:

merge (target, source)

  foreach property of source

    if property exists and is an object on both the target and the source

      merge(target[property], source[property])

    else

      target[property] = source[property]

When the source object contains a property named _proto_ defined with Object.defineProperty() , the condition that checks if the property exists and is an object on both the target and the source passes and the merge recurses with the target, being the prototype of Object and the source of Object as defined by the attacker. Properties are then copied on the Object prototype.

Clone operations are a special sub-class of unsafe recursive merges, which occur when a recursive merge is conducted on an empty object: merge({},source).

lodash and Hoek are examples of libraries susceptible to recursive merge attacks.

Property definition by path

There are a few JavaScript libraries that use an API to define property values on an object based on a given path. The function that is generally affected contains this signature: theFunction(object, path, value)

If the attacker can control the value of “path”, they can set this value to _proto_.myValue. myValue is then assigned to the prototype of the class of the object.

Types of attacks

There are a few methods by which Prototype Pollution can be manipulated:

Type Origin Short description
Denial of service (DoS) Client This is the most likely attack.
DoS occurs when Object holds generic functions that are implicitly called for various operations (for example, toString and valueOf).
The attacker pollutes Object.prototype.someattr and alters its state to an unexpected value such as Int or Object. In this case, the code fails and is likely to cause a denial of service.
For example: if an attacker pollutes Object.prototype.toString by defining it as an integer, if the codebase at any point was reliant on someobject.toString() it would fail.
Remote Code Execution Client Remote code execution is generally only possible in cases where the codebase evaluates a specific attribute of an object, and then executes that evaluation.
For example: eval(someobject.someattr). In this case, if the attacker pollutes Object.prototype.someattr they are likely to be able to leverage this in order to execute code.
Property Injection Client The attacker pollutes properties that the codebase relies on for their informative value, including security properties such as cookies or tokens.
For example: if a codebase checks privileges for someuser.isAdmin, then when the attacker pollutes Object.prototype.isAdmin and sets it to equal true, they can then achieve admin privileges.

Affected environments

The following environments are susceptible to a Prototype Pollution attack:

  • Application server
  • Web server

How to prevent

  1. Freeze the prototype— use Object.freeze (Object.prototype).
  2. Require schema validation of JSON input.
  3. Avoid using unsafe recursive merge functions.
  4. Consider using objects without prototypes (for example, Object.create(null)), breaking the prototype chain and preventing pollution.
  5. As a best practice use Map instead of Object.

For more information on this vulnerability type:

Arteau, Oliver. “JavaScript prototype pollution attack in NodeJS application.” GitHub, 26 May 2018

Remediation

Upgrade set-value to version 4.0.1 or higher.

References

high severity

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

  • Vulnerable module: tough-cookie
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 phantomjs@1.9.20 request@2.67.0 tough-cookie@2.2.2
    Remediation: Open PR to patch tough-cookie@2.2.2.

Overview

tough-cookie is a RFC6265 Cookies and CookieJar module for Node.js.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS). An attacker can provide a cookie, which nearly matches the pattern being matched. This will cause the regular expression matching to take a long time, all the while occupying the event loop and preventing it from processing other requests and making the server unavailable (a Denial of Service attack).

Details

Denial of Service (DoS) describes a family of attacks, all aimed at making a system inaccessible to its original and legitimate users. There are many types of DoS attacks, ranging from trying to clog the network pipes to the system by generating a large volume of traffic from many machines (a Distributed Denial of Service - DDoS - attack) to sending crafted requests that cause a system to crash or take a disproportional amount of time to process.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Regular expressions are incredibly powerful, but they aren't very intuitive and can ultimately end up making it easy for attackers to take your site down.

Let’s take the following regular expression as an example:

regex = /A(B|C+)+D/

This regular expression accomplishes the following:

  • A The string must start with the letter 'A'
  • (B|C+)+ The string must then follow the letter A with either the letter 'B' or some number of occurrences of the letter 'C' (the + matches one or more times). The + at the end of this section states that we can look for one or more matches of this section.
  • D Finally, we ensure this section of the string ends with a 'D'

The expression would match inputs such as ABBD, ABCCCCD, ABCBCCCD and ACCCCCD

It most cases, it doesn't take very long for a regex engine to find a match:

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCD")'
0.04s user 0.01s system 95% cpu 0.052 total

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCX")'
1.79s user 0.02s system 99% cpu 1.812 total

The entire process of testing it against a 30 characters long string takes around ~52ms. But when given an invalid string, it takes nearly two seconds to complete the test, over ten times as long as it took to test a valid string. The dramatic difference is due to the way regular expressions get evaluated.

Most Regex engines will work very similarly (with minor differences). The engine will match the first possible way to accept the current character and proceed to the next one. If it then fails to match the next one, it will backtrack and see if there was another way to digest the previous character. If it goes too far down the rabbit hole only to find out the string doesn’t match in the end, and if many characters have multiple valid regex paths, the number of backtracking steps can become very large, resulting in what is known as catastrophic backtracking.

Let's look at how our expression runs into this problem, using a shorter string: "ACCCX". While it seems fairly straightforward, there are still four different ways that the engine could match those three C's:

  1. CCC
  2. CC+C
  3. C+CC
  4. C+C+C.

The engine has to try each of those combinations to see if any of them potentially match against the expression. When you combine that with the other steps the engine must take, we can use RegEx 101 debugger to see the engine has to take a total of 38 steps before it can determine the string doesn't match.

From there, the number of steps the engine must use to validate a string just continues to grow.

String Number of C's Number of steps
ACCCX 3 38
ACCCCX 4 71
ACCCCCX 5 136
ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCX 14 65,553

By the time the string includes 14 C's, the engine has to take over 65,000 steps just to see if the string is valid. These extreme situations can cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size, as shown above), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

Remediation

Upgrade tough-cookie to version 2.3.0 or higher.

References

high severity

Denial of Service (DoS)

  • Vulnerable module: trim-newlines
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 gulp-util@3.0.7 dateformat@1.0.12 meow@3.7.0 trim-newlines@1.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 bin-check@2.0.0 executable@1.1.0 meow@3.7.0 trim-newlines@1.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 bin-check@2.0.0 executable@1.1.0 meow@3.7.0 trim-newlines@1.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 bin-check@2.0.0 executable@1.1.0 meow@3.7.0 trim-newlines@1.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 bin-check@2.0.0 executable@1.1.0 meow@3.7.0 trim-newlines@1.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 logalot@2.1.0 squeak@1.3.0 lpad-align@1.1.2 meow@3.7.0 trim-newlines@1.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 logalot@2.1.0 squeak@1.3.0 lpad-align@1.1.2 meow@3.7.0 trim-newlines@1.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 logalot@2.1.0 squeak@1.3.0 lpad-align@1.1.2 meow@3.7.0 trim-newlines@1.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 logalot@2.1.0 squeak@1.3.0 lpad-align@1.1.2 meow@3.7.0 trim-newlines@1.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 bin-version-check@2.1.0 bin-version@1.0.4 find-versions@1.2.1 meow@3.7.0 trim-newlines@1.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 bin-version-check@2.1.0 bin-version@1.0.4 find-versions@1.2.1 meow@3.7.0 trim-newlines@1.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 bin-version-check@2.1.0 bin-version@1.0.4 find-versions@1.2.1 meow@3.7.0 trim-newlines@1.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 bin-version-check@2.1.0 bin-version@1.0.4 find-versions@1.2.1 meow@3.7.0 trim-newlines@1.0.0

Overview

trim-newlines is a Trim newlines from the start and/or end of a string

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Denial of Service (DoS) via the end() method.

Details

Denial of Service (DoS) describes a family of attacks, all aimed at making a system inaccessible to its intended and legitimate users.

Unlike other vulnerabilities, DoS attacks usually do not aim at breaching security. Rather, they are focused on making websites and services unavailable to genuine users resulting in downtime.

One popular Denial of Service vulnerability is DDoS (a Distributed Denial of Service), an attack that attempts to clog network pipes to the system by generating a large volume of traffic from many machines.

When it comes to open source libraries, DoS vulnerabilities allow attackers to trigger such a crash or crippling of the service by using a flaw either in the application code or from the use of open source libraries.

Two common types of DoS vulnerabilities:

  • High CPU/Memory Consumption- An attacker sending crafted requests that could cause the system to take a disproportionate amount of time to process. For example, commons-fileupload:commons-fileupload.

  • Crash - An attacker sending crafted requests that could cause the system to crash. For Example, npm ws package

Remediation

Upgrade trim-newlines to version 3.0.1, 4.0.1 or higher.

References

high severity

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

  • Vulnerable module: url-regex
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 url-regex@3.2.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 url-regex@3.2.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 url-regex@3.2.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 url-regex@3.2.0

Overview

url-regex is a package with regular expression for matching URLs

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS). An attacker providing a very long string in String.test can cause a Denial of Service.

PoC by Nick Baugh

> require('url-regex')({ strict: false }).test('018137.113.215.4074.138.129.172220.179.206.94180.213.144.175250.45.147.1364868726sgdm6nohQ')

Details

Denial of Service (DoS) describes a family of attacks, all aimed at making a system inaccessible to its original and legitimate users. There are many types of DoS attacks, ranging from trying to clog the network pipes to the system by generating a large volume of traffic from many machines (a Distributed Denial of Service - DDoS - attack) to sending crafted requests that cause a system to crash or take a disproportional amount of time to process.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Regular expressions are incredibly powerful, but they aren't very intuitive and can ultimately end up making it easy for attackers to take your site down.

Let’s take the following regular expression as an example:

regex = /A(B|C+)+D/

This regular expression accomplishes the following:

  • A The string must start with the letter 'A'
  • (B|C+)+ The string must then follow the letter A with either the letter 'B' or some number of occurrences of the letter 'C' (the + matches one or more times). The + at the end of this section states that we can look for one or more matches of this section.
  • D Finally, we ensure this section of the string ends with a 'D'

The expression would match inputs such as ABBD, ABCCCCD, ABCBCCCD and ACCCCCD

It most cases, it doesn't take very long for a regex engine to find a match:

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCD")'
0.04s user 0.01s system 95% cpu 0.052 total

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCX")'
1.79s user 0.02s system 99% cpu 1.812 total

The entire process of testing it against a 30 characters long string takes around ~52ms. But when given an invalid string, it takes nearly two seconds to complete the test, over ten times as long as it took to test a valid string. The dramatic difference is due to the way regular expressions get evaluated.

Most Regex engines will work very similarly (with minor differences). The engine will match the first possible way to accept the current character and proceed to the next one. If it then fails to match the next one, it will backtrack and see if there was another way to digest the previous character. If it goes too far down the rabbit hole only to find out the string doesn’t match in the end, and if many characters have multiple valid regex paths, the number of backtracking steps can become very large, resulting in what is known as catastrophic backtracking.

Let's look at how our expression runs into this problem, using a shorter string: "ACCCX". While it seems fairly straightforward, there are still four different ways that the engine could match those three C's:

  1. CCC
  2. CC+C
  3. C+CC
  4. C+C+C.

The engine has to try each of those combinations to see if any of them potentially match against the expression. When you combine that with the other steps the engine must take, we can use RegEx 101 debugger to see the engine has to take a total of 38 steps before it can determine the string doesn't match.

From there, the number of steps the engine must use to validate a string just continues to grow.

String Number of C's Number of steps
ACCCX 3 38
ACCCCX 4 71
ACCCCCX 5 136
ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCX 14 65,553

By the time the string includes 14 C's, the engine has to take over 65,000 steps just to see if the string is valid. These extreme situations can cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size, as shown above), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

Remediation

There is no fixed version for url-regex.

References

medium severity

Uninitialized Memory Exposure

  • Vulnerable module: concat-stream
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 phantomjs@1.9.20 extract-zip@1.5.0 concat-stream@1.5.0

Overview

concat-stream is writable stream that concatenates strings or binary data and calls a callback with the result. Affected versions of the package are vulnerable to Uninitialized Memory Exposure.

A possible memory disclosure vulnerability exists when a value of type number is provided to the stringConcat() method and results in concatenation of uninitialized memory to the stream collection.

This is a result of unobstructed use of the Buffer constructor, whose insecure default constructor increases the odds of memory leakage.

Details

Constructing a Buffer class with integer N creates a Buffer of length N with raw (not "zero-ed") memory.

In the following example, the first call would allocate 100 bytes of memory, while the second example will allocate the memory needed for the string "100":

// uninitialized Buffer of length 100
x = new Buffer(100);
// initialized Buffer with value of '100'
x = new Buffer('100');

concat-stream's stringConcat function uses the default Buffer constructor as-is, making it easy to append uninitialized memory to an existing list. If the value of the buffer list is exposed to users, it may expose raw server side memory, potentially holding secrets, private data and code. This is a similar vulnerability to the infamous Heartbleed flaw in OpenSSL.

You can read more about the insecure Buffer behavior on our blog.

Similar vulnerabilities were discovered in request, mongoose, ws and sequelize.

Remediation

Upgrade concat-stream to version 1.5.2 or higher. Note This is vulnerable only for Node <=4

References

medium severity

Arbitrary File Write via Archive Extraction (Zip Slip)

  • Vulnerable module: decompress
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0

Overview

decompress is a package that can be used for extracting archives.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Arbitrary File Write via Archive Extraction (Zip Slip). It is possible to bypass the security measures provided by decompress and conduct ZIP path traversal through symlinks.

PoC

const decompress = require('decompress');

decompress('slip.tar.gz', 'dist').then(files => {
    console.log('done!');
});

Details

It is exploited using a specially crafted zip archive, that holds path traversal filenames. When exploited, a filename in a malicious archive is concatenated to the target extraction directory, which results in the final path ending up outside of the target folder. For instance, a zip may hold a file with a "../../file.exe" location and thus break out of the target folder. If an executable or a configuration file is overwritten with a file containing malicious code, the problem can turn into an arbitrary code execution issue quite easily.

The following is an example of a zip archive with one benign file and one malicious file. Extracting the malicous file will result in traversing out of the target folder, ending up in /root/.ssh/ overwriting the authorized_keys file:


+2018-04-15 22:04:29 ..... 19 19 good.txt

+2018-04-15 22:04:42 ..... 20 20 ../../../../../../root/.ssh/authorized_keys

Remediation

Upgrade decompress to version 4.2.1 or higher.

References

medium severity

Arbitrary File Write via Archive Extraction (Zip Slip)

  • Vulnerable module: decompress-tar
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 decompress-tar@3.1.0

Overview

decompress-tar is a tar plugin for decompress.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Arbitrary File Write via Archive Extraction (Zip Slip). It is possible to bypass the security measures provided by decompress and conduct ZIP path traversal through symlinks.

PoC

const decompress = require('decompress');

decompress('slip.tar.gz', 'dist').then(files => {
    console.log('done!');
});

Details

It is exploited using a specially crafted zip archive, that holds path traversal filenames. When exploited, a filename in a malicious archive is concatenated to the target extraction directory, which results in the final path ending up outside of the target folder. For instance, a zip may hold a file with a "../../file.exe" location and thus break out of the target folder. If an executable or a configuration file is overwritten with a file containing malicious code, the problem can turn into an arbitrary code execution issue quite easily.

The following is an example of a zip archive with one benign file and one malicious file. Extracting the malicous file will result in traversing out of the target folder, ending up in /root/.ssh/ overwriting the authorized_keys file:


+2018-04-15 22:04:29 ..... 19 19 good.txt

+2018-04-15 22:04:42 ..... 20 20 ../../../../../../root/.ssh/authorized_keys

Remediation

There is no fixed version for decompress-tar.

References

medium severity

Prototype Pollution

  • Vulnerable module: dot
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 dot@1.0.3

Overview

dot is a fastest and concise JavaScript templating function with emphasis on performance under V8 and nodejs. It shows great performance for both nodejs and browsers.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Prototype Pollution. An attacker can inject code to the template, or if a Prototype Pollution-like vulnerability can be exploited to alter an Object's prototype, the template compilation may execute arbitrary commands.

Details

Prototype Pollution is a vulnerability affecting JavaScript. Prototype Pollution refers to the ability to inject properties into existing JavaScript language construct prototypes, such as objects. JavaScript allows all Object attributes to be altered, including their magical attributes such as _proto_, constructor and prototype. An attacker manipulates these attributes to overwrite, or pollute, a JavaScript application object prototype of the base object by injecting other values. Properties on the Object.prototype are then inherited by all the JavaScript objects through the prototype chain. When that happens, this leads to either denial of service by triggering JavaScript exceptions, or it tampers with the application source code to force the code path that the attacker injects, thereby leading to remote code execution.

There are two main ways in which the pollution of prototypes occurs:

  • Unsafe Object recursive merge
  • Property definition by path

Unsafe Object recursive merge

The logic of a vulnerable recursive merge function follows the following high-level model:

merge (target, source)

  foreach property of source

    if property exists and is an object on both the target and the source

      merge(target[property], source[property])

    else

      target[property] = source[property]

When the source object contains a property named _proto_ defined with Object.defineProperty() , the condition that checks if the property exists and is an object on both the target and the source passes and the merge recurses with the target, being the prototype of Object and the source of Object as defined by the attacker. Properties are then copied on the Object prototype.

Clone operations are a special sub-class of unsafe recursive merges, which occur when a recursive merge is conducted on an empty object: merge({},source).

lodash and Hoek are examples of libraries susceptible to recursive merge attacks.

Property definition by path

There are a few JavaScript libraries that use an API to define property values on an object based on a given path. The function that is generally affected contains this signature: theFunction(object, path, value)

If the attacker can control the value of “path”, they can set this value to _proto_.myValue. myValue is then assigned to the prototype of the class of the object.

Types of attacks

There are a few methods by which Prototype Pollution can be manipulated:

Type Origin Short description
Denial of service (DoS) Client This is the most likely attack.
DoS occurs when Object holds generic functions that are implicitly called for various operations (for example, toString and valueOf).
The attacker pollutes Object.prototype.someattr and alters its state to an unexpected value such as Int or Object. In this case, the code fails and is likely to cause a denial of service.
For example: if an attacker pollutes Object.prototype.toString by defining it as an integer, if the codebase at any point was reliant on someobject.toString() it would fail.
Remote Code Execution Client Remote code execution is generally only possible in cases where the codebase evaluates a specific attribute of an object, and then executes that evaluation.
For example: eval(someobject.someattr). In this case, if the attacker pollutes Object.prototype.someattr they are likely to be able to leverage this in order to execute code.
Property Injection Client The attacker pollutes properties that the codebase relies on for their informative value, including security properties such as cookies or tokens.
For example: if a codebase checks privileges for someuser.isAdmin, then when the attacker pollutes Object.prototype.isAdmin and sets it to equal true, they can then achieve admin privileges.

Affected environments

The following environments are susceptible to a Prototype Pollution attack:

  • Application server
  • Web server

How to prevent

  1. Freeze the prototype— use Object.freeze (Object.prototype).
  2. Require schema validation of JSON input.
  3. Avoid using unsafe recursive merge functions.
  4. Consider using objects without prototypes (for example, Object.create(null)), breaking the prototype chain and preventing pollution.
  5. As a best practice use Map instead of Object.

For more information on this vulnerability type:

Arteau, Oliver. “JavaScript prototype pollution attack in NodeJS application.” GitHub, 26 May 2018

Remediation

Upgrade dot to version 1.1.3 or higher.

References

medium severity

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

  • Vulnerable module: glob-parent
  • Introduced through: live-server@1.2.1 and angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 live-server@1.2.1 chokidar@2.1.8 glob-parent@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 glob-parent@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 glob-parent@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 glob-parent@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 glob-parent@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 glob-parent@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 glob-parent@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 glob-parent@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 glob-parent@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 glob-parent@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 glob-parent@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 glob-parent@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 glob-parent@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 glob-parent@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 glob-parent@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 glob-parent@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 glob-parent@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 glob-parent@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 glob-parent@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 glob-parent@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 glob-parent@3.1.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 parse-glob@3.0.4 glob-base@0.3.0 glob-parent@2.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 parse-glob@3.0.4 glob-base@0.3.0 glob-parent@2.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 parse-glob@3.0.4 glob-base@0.3.0 glob-parent@2.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 parse-glob@3.0.4 glob-base@0.3.0 glob-parent@2.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 parse-glob@3.0.4 glob-base@0.3.0 glob-parent@2.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 parse-glob@3.0.4 glob-base@0.3.0 glob-parent@2.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 parse-glob@3.0.4 glob-base@0.3.0 glob-parent@2.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 parse-glob@3.0.4 glob-base@0.3.0 glob-parent@2.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 parse-glob@3.0.4 glob-base@0.3.0 glob-parent@2.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 parse-glob@3.0.4 glob-base@0.3.0 glob-parent@2.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 parse-glob@3.0.4 glob-base@0.3.0 glob-parent@2.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 parse-glob@3.0.4 glob-base@0.3.0 glob-parent@2.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 parse-glob@3.0.4 glob-base@0.3.0 glob-parent@2.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 parse-glob@3.0.4 glob-base@0.3.0 glob-parent@2.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 parse-glob@3.0.4 glob-base@0.3.0 glob-parent@2.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 parse-glob@3.0.4 glob-base@0.3.0 glob-parent@2.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 parse-glob@3.0.4 glob-base@0.3.0 glob-parent@2.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 parse-glob@3.0.4 glob-base@0.3.0 glob-parent@2.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 parse-glob@3.0.4 glob-base@0.3.0 glob-parent@2.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 parse-glob@3.0.4 glob-base@0.3.0 glob-parent@2.0.0

Overview

glob-parent is a package that helps extracting the non-magic parent path from a glob string.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS). The enclosure regex used to check for strings ending in enclosure containing path separator.

PoC by Yeting Li

var globParent = require("glob-parent")
function build_attack(n) {
var ret = "{"
for (var i = 0; i < n; i++) {
ret += "/"
}

return ret;
}

globParent(build_attack(5000));

Details

Denial of Service (DoS) describes a family of attacks, all aimed at making a system inaccessible to its original and legitimate users. There are many types of DoS attacks, ranging from trying to clog the network pipes to the system by generating a large volume of traffic from many machines (a Distributed Denial of Service - DDoS - attack) to sending crafted requests that cause a system to crash or take a disproportional amount of time to process.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Regular expressions are incredibly powerful, but they aren't very intuitive and can ultimately end up making it easy for attackers to take your site down.

Let’s take the following regular expression as an example:

regex = /A(B|C+)+D/

This regular expression accomplishes the following:

  • A The string must start with the letter 'A'
  • (B|C+)+ The string must then follow the letter A with either the letter 'B' or some number of occurrences of the letter 'C' (the + matches one or more times). The + at the end of this section states that we can look for one or more matches of this section.
  • D Finally, we ensure this section of the string ends with a 'D'

The expression would match inputs such as ABBD, ABCCCCD, ABCBCCCD and ACCCCCD

It most cases, it doesn't take very long for a regex engine to find a match:

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCD")'
0.04s user 0.01s system 95% cpu 0.052 total

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCX")'
1.79s user 0.02s system 99% cpu 1.812 total

The entire process of testing it against a 30 characters long string takes around ~52ms. But when given an invalid string, it takes nearly two seconds to complete the test, over ten times as long as it took to test a valid string. The dramatic difference is due to the way regular expressions get evaluated.

Most Regex engines will work very similarly (with minor differences). The engine will match the first possible way to accept the current character and proceed to the next one. If it then fails to match the next one, it will backtrack and see if there was another way to digest the previous character. If it goes too far down the rabbit hole only to find out the string doesn’t match in the end, and if many characters have multiple valid regex paths, the number of backtracking steps can become very large, resulting in what is known as catastrophic backtracking.

Let's look at how our expression runs into this problem, using a shorter string: "ACCCX". While it seems fairly straightforward, there are still four different ways that the engine could match those three C's:

  1. CCC
  2. CC+C
  3. C+CC
  4. C+C+C.

The engine has to try each of those combinations to see if any of them potentially match against the expression. When you combine that with the other steps the engine must take, we can use RegEx 101 debugger to see the engine has to take a total of 38 steps before it can determine the string doesn't match.

From there, the number of steps the engine must use to validate a string just continues to grow.

String Number of C's Number of steps
ACCCX 3 38
ACCCCX 4 71
ACCCCCX 5 136
ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCX 14 65,553

By the time the string includes 14 C's, the engine has to take over 65,000 steps just to see if the string is valid. These extreme situations can cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size, as shown above), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

Remediation

Upgrade glob-parent to version 5.1.2 or higher.

References

medium severity

Prototype Pollution

  • Vulnerable module: hoek
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 phantomjs@1.9.20 request@2.67.0 hawk@3.1.3 hoek@2.16.3
    Remediation: Open PR to patch hoek@2.16.3.
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 phantomjs@1.9.20 request@2.67.0 hawk@3.1.3 boom@2.10.1 hoek@2.16.3
    Remediation: Open PR to patch hoek@2.16.3.
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 phantomjs@1.9.20 request@2.67.0 hawk@3.1.3 sntp@1.0.9 hoek@2.16.3
    Remediation: Open PR to patch hoek@2.16.3.
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 phantomjs@1.9.20 request@2.67.0 hawk@3.1.3 cryptiles@2.0.5 boom@2.10.1 hoek@2.16.3
    Remediation: Open PR to patch hoek@2.16.3.

Overview

hoek is an Utility methods for the hapi ecosystem.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Prototype Pollution. The utilities function allow modification of the Object prototype. If an attacker can control part of the structure passed to this function, they could add or modify an existing property.

PoC by Olivier Arteau (HoLyVieR)

var Hoek = require('hoek');
var malicious_payload = '{"__proto__":{"oops":"It works !"}}';

var a = {};
console.log("Before : " + a.oops);
Hoek.merge({}, JSON.parse(malicious_payload));
console.log("After : " + a.oops);

Details

Denial of Service (DoS) describes a family of attacks, all aimed at making a system inaccessible to its original and legitimate users. There are many types of DoS attacks, ranging from trying to clog the network pipes to the system by generating a large volume of traffic from many machines (a Distributed Denial of Service - DDoS - attack) to sending crafted requests that cause a system to crash or take a disproportional amount of time to process.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Regular expressions are incredibly powerful, but they aren't very intuitive and can ultimately end up making it easy for attackers to take your site down.

Let’s take the following regular expression as an example:

regex = /A(B|C+)+D/

This regular expression accomplishes the following:

  • A The string must start with the letter 'A'
  • (B|C+)+ The string must then follow the letter A with either the letter 'B' or some number of occurrences of the letter 'C' (the + matches one or more times). The + at the end of this section states that we can look for one or more matches of this section.
  • D Finally, we ensure this section of the string ends with a 'D'

The expression would match inputs such as ABBD, ABCCCCD, ABCBCCCD and ACCCCCD

It most cases, it doesn't take very long for a regex engine to find a match:

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCD")'
0.04s user 0.01s system 95% cpu 0.052 total

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCX")'
1.79s user 0.02s system 99% cpu 1.812 total

The entire process of testing it against a 30 characters long string takes around ~52ms. But when given an invalid string, it takes nearly two seconds to complete the test, over ten times as long as it took to test a valid string. The dramatic difference is due to the way regular expressions get evaluated.

Most Regex engines will work very similarly (with minor differences). The engine will match the first possible way to accept the current character and proceed to the next one. If it then fails to match the next one, it will backtrack and see if there was another way to digest the previous character. If it goes too far down the rabbit hole only to find out the string doesn’t match in the end, and if many characters have multiple valid regex paths, the number of backtracking steps can become very large, resulting in what is known as catastrophic backtracking.

Let's look at how our expression runs into this problem, using a shorter string: "ACCCX". While it seems fairly straightforward, there are still four different ways that the engine could match those three C's:

  1. CCC
  2. CC+C
  3. C+CC
  4. C+C+C.

The engine has to try each of those combinations to see if any of them potentially match against the expression. When you combine that with the other steps the engine must take, we can use RegEx 101 debugger to see the engine has to take a total of 38 steps before it can determine the string doesn't match.

From there, the number of steps the engine must use to validate a string just continues to grow.

String Number of C's Number of steps
ACCCX 3 38
ACCCCX 4 71
ACCCCCX 5 136
ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCX 14 65,553

By the time the string includes 14 C's, the engine has to take over 65,000 steps just to see if the string is valid. These extreme situations can cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size, as shown above), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

Remediation

Upgrade hoek to version 4.2.1, 5.0.3 or higher.

References

medium severity

Denial of Service (DoS)

  • Vulnerable module: js-yaml
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-svgo@4.2.1 svgo@0.6.6 js-yaml@3.6.1

Overview

js-yaml is a human-friendly data serialization language.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Denial of Service (DoS). The parsing of a specially crafted YAML file may exhaust the system resources.

Details

Denial of Service (DoS) describes a family of attacks, all aimed at making a system inaccessible to its original and legitimate users. There are many types of DoS attacks, ranging from trying to clog the network pipes to the system by generating a large volume of traffic from many machines (a Distributed Denial of Service - DDoS - attack) to sending crafted requests that cause a system to crash or take a disproportional amount of time to process.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Regular expressions are incredibly powerful, but they aren't very intuitive and can ultimately end up making it easy for attackers to take your site down.

Let’s take the following regular expression as an example:

regex = /A(B|C+)+D/

This regular expression accomplishes the following:

  • A The string must start with the letter 'A'
  • (B|C+)+ The string must then follow the letter A with either the letter 'B' or some number of occurrences of the letter 'C' (the + matches one or more times). The + at the end of this section states that we can look for one or more matches of this section.
  • D Finally, we ensure this section of the string ends with a 'D'

The expression would match inputs such as ABBD, ABCCCCD, ABCBCCCD and ACCCCCD

It most cases, it doesn't take very long for a regex engine to find a match:

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCD")'
0.04s user 0.01s system 95% cpu 0.052 total

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCX")'
1.79s user 0.02s system 99% cpu 1.812 total

The entire process of testing it against a 30 characters long string takes around ~52ms. But when given an invalid string, it takes nearly two seconds to complete the test, over ten times as long as it took to test a valid string. The dramatic difference is due to the way regular expressions get evaluated.

Most Regex engines will work very similarly (with minor differences). The engine will match the first possible way to accept the current character and proceed to the next one. If it then fails to match the next one, it will backtrack and see if there was another way to digest the previous character. If it goes too far down the rabbit hole only to find out the string doesn’t match in the end, and if many characters have multiple valid regex paths, the number of backtracking steps can become very large, resulting in what is known as catastrophic backtracking.

Let's look at how our expression runs into this problem, using a shorter string: "ACCCX". While it seems fairly straightforward, there are still four different ways that the engine could match those three C's:

  1. CCC
  2. CC+C
  3. C+CC
  4. C+C+C.

The engine has to try each of those combinations to see if any of them potentially match against the expression. When you combine that with the other steps the engine must take, we can use RegEx 101 debugger to see the engine has to take a total of 38 steps before it can determine the string doesn't match.

From there, the number of steps the engine must use to validate a string just continues to grow.

String Number of C's Number of steps
ACCCX 3 38
ACCCCX 4 71
ACCCCCX 5 136
ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCX 14 65,553

By the time the string includes 14 C's, the engine has to take over 65,000 steps just to see if the string is valid. These extreme situations can cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size, as shown above), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

Remediation

Upgrade js-yaml to version 3.13.0 or higher.

References

medium severity

Prototype Pollution

  • Vulnerable module: lodash
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 vinyl-fs@0.3.14 glob-watcher@0.0.6 gaze@0.5.2 globule@0.1.0 lodash@1.0.2

Overview

lodash is a modern JavaScript utility library delivering modularity, performance, & extras.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Prototype Pollution. The function zipObjectDeep can be tricked into adding or modifying properties of the Object prototype. These properties will be present on all objects.

PoC

const _ = require('lodash');
_.zipObjectDeep(['__proto__.z'],[123])
console.log(z) // 123

Details

Prototype Pollution is a vulnerability affecting JavaScript. Prototype Pollution refers to the ability to inject properties into existing JavaScript language construct prototypes, such as objects. JavaScript allows all Object attributes to be altered, including their magical attributes such as _proto_, constructor and prototype. An attacker manipulates these attributes to overwrite, or pollute, a JavaScript application object prototype of the base object by injecting other values. Properties on the Object.prototype are then inherited by all the JavaScript objects through the prototype chain. When that happens, this leads to either denial of service by triggering JavaScript exceptions, or it tampers with the application source code to force the code path that the attacker injects, thereby leading to remote code execution.

There are two main ways in which the pollution of prototypes occurs:

  • Unsafe Object recursive merge
  • Property definition by path

Unsafe Object recursive merge

The logic of a vulnerable recursive merge function follows the following high-level model:

merge (target, source)

  foreach property of source

    if property exists and is an object on both the target and the source

      merge(target[property], source[property])

    else

      target[property] = source[property]

When the source object contains a property named _proto_ defined with Object.defineProperty() , the condition that checks if the property exists and is an object on both the target and the source passes and the merge recurses with the target, being the prototype of Object and the source of Object as defined by the attacker. Properties are then copied on the Object prototype.

Clone operations are a special sub-class of unsafe recursive merges, which occur when a recursive merge is conducted on an empty object: merge({},source).

lodash and Hoek are examples of libraries susceptible to recursive merge attacks.

Property definition by path

There are a few JavaScript libraries that use an API to define property values on an object based on a given path. The function that is generally affected contains this signature: theFunction(object, path, value)

If the attacker can control the value of “path”, they can set this value to _proto_.myValue. myValue is then assigned to the prototype of the class of the object.

Types of attacks

There are a few methods by which Prototype Pollution can be manipulated:

Type Origin Short description
Denial of service (DoS) Client This is the most likely attack.
DoS occurs when Object holds generic functions that are implicitly called for various operations (for example, toString and valueOf).
The attacker pollutes Object.prototype.someattr and alters its state to an unexpected value such as Int or Object. In this case, the code fails and is likely to cause a denial of service.
For example: if an attacker pollutes Object.prototype.toString by defining it as an integer, if the codebase at any point was reliant on someobject.toString() it would fail.
Remote Code Execution Client Remote code execution is generally only possible in cases where the codebase evaluates a specific attribute of an object, and then executes that evaluation.
For example: eval(someobject.someattr). In this case, if the attacker pollutes Object.prototype.someattr they are likely to be able to leverage this in order to execute code.
Property Injection Client The attacker pollutes properties that the codebase relies on for their informative value, including security properties such as cookies or tokens.
For example: if a codebase checks privileges for someuser.isAdmin, then when the attacker pollutes Object.prototype.isAdmin and sets it to equal true, they can then achieve admin privileges.

Affected environments

The following environments are susceptible to a Prototype Pollution attack:

  • Application server
  • Web server

How to prevent

  1. Freeze the prototype— use Object.freeze (Object.prototype).
  2. Require schema validation of JSON input.
  3. Avoid using unsafe recursive merge functions.
  4. Consider using objects without prototypes (for example, Object.create(null)), breaking the prototype chain and preventing pollution.
  5. As a best practice use Map instead of Object.

For more information on this vulnerability type:

Arteau, Oliver. “JavaScript prototype pollution attack in NodeJS application.” GitHub, 26 May 2018

Remediation

Upgrade lodash to version 4.17.16 or higher.

References

medium severity

Prototype Pollution

  • Vulnerable module: lodash
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 vinyl-fs@0.3.14 glob-watcher@0.0.6 gaze@0.5.2 globule@0.1.0 lodash@1.0.2

Overview

lodash is a modern JavaScript utility library delivering modularity, performance, & extras.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Prototype Pollution. The utilities function allow modification of the Object prototype. If an attacker can control part of the structure passed to this function, they could add or modify an existing property.

PoC by Olivier Arteau (HoLyVieR)

var _= require('lodash');
var malicious_payload = '{"__proto__":{"oops":"It works !"}}';

var a = {};
console.log("Before : " + a.oops);
_.merge({}, JSON.parse(malicious_payload));
console.log("After : " + a.oops);

Details

Prototype Pollution is a vulnerability affecting JavaScript. Prototype Pollution refers to the ability to inject properties into existing JavaScript language construct prototypes, such as objects. JavaScript allows all Object attributes to be altered, including their magical attributes such as _proto_, constructor and prototype. An attacker manipulates these attributes to overwrite, or pollute, a JavaScript application object prototype of the base object by injecting other values. Properties on the Object.prototype are then inherited by all the JavaScript objects through the prototype chain. When that happens, this leads to either denial of service by triggering JavaScript exceptions, or it tampers with the application source code to force the code path that the attacker injects, thereby leading to remote code execution.

There are two main ways in which the pollution of prototypes occurs:

  • Unsafe Object recursive merge
  • Property definition by path

Unsafe Object recursive merge

The logic of a vulnerable recursive merge function follows the following high-level model:

merge (target, source)

  foreach property of source

    if property exists and is an object on both the target and the source

      merge(target[property], source[property])

    else

      target[property] = source[property]

When the source object contains a property named _proto_ defined with Object.defineProperty() , the condition that checks if the property exists and is an object on both the target and the source passes and the merge recurses with the target, being the prototype of Object and the source of Object as defined by the attacker. Properties are then copied on the Object prototype.

Clone operations are a special sub-class of unsafe recursive merges, which occur when a recursive merge is conducted on an empty object: merge({},source).

lodash and Hoek are examples of libraries susceptible to recursive merge attacks.

Property definition by path

There are a few JavaScript libraries that use an API to define property values on an object based on a given path. The function that is generally affected contains this signature: theFunction(object, path, value)

If the attacker can control the value of “path”, they can set this value to _proto_.myValue. myValue is then assigned to the prototype of the class of the object.

Types of attacks

There are a few methods by which Prototype Pollution can be manipulated:

Type Origin Short description
Denial of service (DoS) Client This is the most likely attack.
DoS occurs when Object holds generic functions that are implicitly called for various operations (for example, toString and valueOf).
The attacker pollutes Object.prototype.someattr and alters its state to an unexpected value such as Int or Object. In this case, the code fails and is likely to cause a denial of service.
For example: if an attacker pollutes Object.prototype.toString by defining it as an integer, if the codebase at any point was reliant on someobject.toString() it would fail.
Remote Code Execution Client Remote code execution is generally only possible in cases where the codebase evaluates a specific attribute of an object, and then executes that evaluation.
For example: eval(someobject.someattr). In this case, if the attacker pollutes Object.prototype.someattr they are likely to be able to leverage this in order to execute code.
Property Injection Client The attacker pollutes properties that the codebase relies on for their informative value, including security properties such as cookies or tokens.
For example: if a codebase checks privileges for someuser.isAdmin, then when the attacker pollutes Object.prototype.isAdmin and sets it to equal true, they can then achieve admin privileges.

Affected environments

The following environments are susceptible to a Prototype Pollution attack:

  • Application server
  • Web server

How to prevent

  1. Freeze the prototype— use Object.freeze (Object.prototype).
  2. Require schema validation of JSON input.
  3. Avoid using unsafe recursive merge functions.
  4. Consider using objects without prototypes (for example, Object.create(null)), breaking the prototype chain and preventing pollution.
  5. As a best practice use Map instead of Object.

For more information on this vulnerability type:

Arteau, Oliver. “JavaScript prototype pollution attack in NodeJS application.” GitHub, 26 May 2018

Remediation

Upgrade lodash to version 4.17.5 or higher.

References

medium severity

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

  • Vulnerable module: lodash
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 vinyl-fs@0.3.14 glob-watcher@0.0.6 gaze@0.5.2 globule@0.1.0 lodash@1.0.2

Overview

lodash is a modern JavaScript utility library delivering modularity, performance, & extras.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) via the toNumber, trim and trimEnd functions.

POC

var lo = require('lodash');

function build_blank (n) {
var ret = "1"
for (var i = 0; i < n; i++) {
ret += " "
}

return ret + "1";
}

var s = build_blank(50000)
var time0 = Date.now();
lo.trim(s)
var time_cost0 = Date.now() - time0;
console.log("time_cost0: " + time_cost0)

var time1 = Date.now();
lo.toNumber(s)
var time_cost1 = Date.now() - time1;
console.log("time_cost1: " + time_cost1)

var time2 = Date.now();
lo.trimEnd(s)
var time_cost2 = Date.now() - time2;
console.log("time_cost2: " + time_cost2)

Details

Denial of Service (DoS) describes a family of attacks, all aimed at making a system inaccessible to its original and legitimate users. There are many types of DoS attacks, ranging from trying to clog the network pipes to the system by generating a large volume of traffic from many machines (a Distributed Denial of Service - DDoS - attack) to sending crafted requests that cause a system to crash or take a disproportional amount of time to process.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Regular expressions are incredibly powerful, but they aren't very intuitive and can ultimately end up making it easy for attackers to take your site down.

Let’s take the following regular expression as an example:

regex = /A(B|C+)+D/

This regular expression accomplishes the following:

  • A The string must start with the letter 'A'
  • (B|C+)+ The string must then follow the letter A with either the letter 'B' or some number of occurrences of the letter 'C' (the + matches one or more times). The + at the end of this section states that we can look for one or more matches of this section.
  • D Finally, we ensure this section of the string ends with a 'D'

The expression would match inputs such as ABBD, ABCCCCD, ABCBCCCD and ACCCCCD

It most cases, it doesn't take very long for a regex engine to find a match:

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCD")'
0.04s user 0.01s system 95% cpu 0.052 total

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCX")'
1.79s user 0.02s system 99% cpu 1.812 total

The entire process of testing it against a 30 characters long string takes around ~52ms. But when given an invalid string, it takes nearly two seconds to complete the test, over ten times as long as it took to test a valid string. The dramatic difference is due to the way regular expressions get evaluated.

Most Regex engines will work very similarly (with minor differences). The engine will match the first possible way to accept the current character and proceed to the next one. If it then fails to match the next one, it will backtrack and see if there was another way to digest the previous character. If it goes too far down the rabbit hole only to find out the string doesn’t match in the end, and if many characters have multiple valid regex paths, the number of backtracking steps can become very large, resulting in what is known as catastrophic backtracking.

Let's look at how our expression runs into this problem, using a shorter string: "ACCCX". While it seems fairly straightforward, there are still four different ways that the engine could match those three C's:

  1. CCC
  2. CC+C
  3. C+CC
  4. C+C+C.

The engine has to try each of those combinations to see if any of them potentially match against the expression. When you combine that with the other steps the engine must take, we can use RegEx 101 debugger to see the engine has to take a total of 38 steps before it can determine the string doesn't match.

From there, the number of steps the engine must use to validate a string just continues to grow.

String Number of C's Number of steps
ACCCX 3 38
ACCCCX 4 71
ACCCCCX 5 136
ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCX 14 65,553

By the time the string includes 14 C's, the engine has to take over 65,000 steps just to see if the string is valid. These extreme situations can cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size, as shown above), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

Remediation

Upgrade lodash to version 4.17.21 or higher.

References

medium severity

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

  • Vulnerable module: lodash
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 vinyl-fs@0.3.14 glob-watcher@0.0.6 gaze@0.5.2 globule@0.1.0 lodash@1.0.2

Overview

lodash is a modern JavaScript utility library delivering modularity, performance, & extras.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS). It parses dates using regex strings, which may cause a slowdown of 2 seconds per 50k characters.

Details

Denial of Service (DoS) describes a family of attacks, all aimed at making a system inaccessible to its original and legitimate users. There are many types of DoS attacks, ranging from trying to clog the network pipes to the system by generating a large volume of traffic from many machines (a Distributed Denial of Service - DDoS - attack) to sending crafted requests that cause a system to crash or take a disproportional amount of time to process.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Regular expressions are incredibly powerful, but they aren't very intuitive and can ultimately end up making it easy for attackers to take your site down.

Let’s take the following regular expression as an example:

regex = /A(B|C+)+D/

This regular expression accomplishes the following:

  • A The string must start with the letter 'A'
  • (B|C+)+ The string must then follow the letter A with either the letter 'B' or some number of occurrences of the letter 'C' (the + matches one or more times). The + at the end of this section states that we can look for one or more matches of this section.
  • D Finally, we ensure this section of the string ends with a 'D'

The expression would match inputs such as ABBD, ABCCCCD, ABCBCCCD and ACCCCCD

It most cases, it doesn't take very long for a regex engine to find a match:

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCD")'
0.04s user 0.01s system 95% cpu 0.052 total

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCX")'
1.79s user 0.02s system 99% cpu 1.812 total

The entire process of testing it against a 30 characters long string takes around ~52ms. But when given an invalid string, it takes nearly two seconds to complete the test, over ten times as long as it took to test a valid string. The dramatic difference is due to the way regular expressions get evaluated.

Most Regex engines will work very similarly (with minor differences). The engine will match the first possible way to accept the current character and proceed to the next one. If it then fails to match the next one, it will backtrack and see if there was another way to digest the previous character. If it goes too far down the rabbit hole only to find out the string doesn’t match in the end, and if many characters have multiple valid regex paths, the number of backtracking steps can become very large, resulting in what is known as catastrophic backtracking.

Let's look at how our expression runs into this problem, using a shorter string: "ACCCX". While it seems fairly straightforward, there are still four different ways that the engine could match those three C's:

  1. CCC
  2. CC+C
  3. C+CC
  4. C+C+C.

The engine has to try each of those combinations to see if any of them potentially match against the expression. When you combine that with the other steps the engine must take, we can use RegEx 101 debugger to see the engine has to take a total of 38 steps before it can determine the string doesn't match.

From there, the number of steps the engine must use to validate a string just continues to grow.

String Number of C's Number of steps
ACCCX 3 38
ACCCCX 4 71
ACCCCCX 5 136
ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCX 14 65,553

By the time the string includes 14 C's, the engine has to take over 65,000 steps just to see if the string is valid. These extreme situations can cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size, as shown above), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

Remediation

Upgrade lodash to version 4.17.11 or higher.

References

medium severity

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS )

  • Vulnerable module: marked
  • Introduced through: marked@0.3.19

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 marked@0.3.19
    Remediation: Upgrade to marked@1.1.1.

Overview

marked is a low-level compiler for parsing markdown without caching or blocking for long periods of time.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS ). The em regex within src/rules.js file have multiple unused capture groups which could lead to a denial of service attack if user input is reachable.

Details

Denial of Service (DoS) describes a family of attacks, all aimed at making a system inaccessible to its original and legitimate users. There are many types of DoS attacks, ranging from trying to clog the network pipes to the system by generating a large volume of traffic from many machines (a Distributed Denial of Service - DDoS - attack) to sending crafted requests that cause a system to crash or take a disproportional amount of time to process.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Regular expressions are incredibly powerful, but they aren't very intuitive and can ultimately end up making it easy for attackers to take your site down.

Let’s take the following regular expression as an example:

regex = /A(B|C+)+D/

This regular expression accomplishes the following:

  • A The string must start with the letter 'A'
  • (B|C+)+ The string must then follow the letter A with either the letter 'B' or some number of occurrences of the letter 'C' (the + matches one or more times). The + at the end of this section states that we can look for one or more matches of this section.
  • D Finally, we ensure this section of the string ends with a 'D'

The expression would match inputs such as ABBD, ABCCCCD, ABCBCCCD and ACCCCCD

It most cases, it doesn't take very long for a regex engine to find a match:

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCD")'
0.04s user 0.01s system 95% cpu 0.052 total

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCX")'
1.79s user 0.02s system 99% cpu 1.812 total

The entire process of testing it against a 30 characters long string takes around ~52ms. But when given an invalid string, it takes nearly two seconds to complete the test, over ten times as long as it took to test a valid string. The dramatic difference is due to the way regular expressions get evaluated.

Most Regex engines will work very similarly (with minor differences). The engine will match the first possible way to accept the current character and proceed to the next one. If it then fails to match the next one, it will backtrack and see if there was another way to digest the previous character. If it goes too far down the rabbit hole only to find out the string doesn’t match in the end, and if many characters have multiple valid regex paths, the number of backtracking steps can become very large, resulting in what is known as catastrophic backtracking.

Let's look at how our expression runs into this problem, using a shorter string: "ACCCX". While it seems fairly straightforward, there are still four different ways that the engine could match those three C's:

  1. CCC
  2. CC+C
  3. C+CC
  4. C+C+C.

The engine has to try each of those combinations to see if any of them potentially match against the expression. When you combine that with the other steps the engine must take, we can use RegEx 101 debugger to see the engine has to take a total of 38 steps before it can determine the string doesn't match.

From there, the number of steps the engine must use to validate a string just continues to grow.

String Number of C's Number of steps
ACCCX 3 38
ACCCCX 4 71
ACCCCCX 5 136
ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCX 14 65,553

By the time the string includes 14 C's, the engine has to take over 65,000 steps just to see if the string is valid. These extreme situations can cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size, as shown above), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

Remediation

Upgrade marked to version 1.1.1 or higher.

References

medium severity

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

  • Vulnerable module: marked
  • Introduced through: marked@0.3.19

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 marked@0.3.19
    Remediation: Upgrade to marked@0.6.2.

Overview

marked is a low-level compiler for parsing markdown without caching or blocking for long periods of time.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS). The inline.text regex may take quadratic time to scan for potential email addresses starting at every point.

Details

Denial of Service (DoS) describes a family of attacks, all aimed at making a system inaccessible to its original and legitimate users. There are many types of DoS attacks, ranging from trying to clog the network pipes to the system by generating a large volume of traffic from many machines (a Distributed Denial of Service - DDoS - attack) to sending crafted requests that cause a system to crash or take a disproportional amount of time to process.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Regular expressions are incredibly powerful, but they aren't very intuitive and can ultimately end up making it easy for attackers to take your site down.

Let’s take the following regular expression as an example:

regex = /A(B|C+)+D/

This regular expression accomplishes the following:

  • A The string must start with the letter 'A'
  • (B|C+)+ The string must then follow the letter A with either the letter 'B' or some number of occurrences of the letter 'C' (the + matches one or more times). The + at the end of this section states that we can look for one or more matches of this section.
  • D Finally, we ensure this section of the string ends with a 'D'

The expression would match inputs such as ABBD, ABCCCCD, ABCBCCCD and ACCCCCD

It most cases, it doesn't take very long for a regex engine to find a match:

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCD")'
0.04s user 0.01s system 95% cpu 0.052 total

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCX")'
1.79s user 0.02s system 99% cpu 1.812 total

The entire process of testing it against a 30 characters long string takes around ~52ms. But when given an invalid string, it takes nearly two seconds to complete the test, over ten times as long as it took to test a valid string. The dramatic difference is due to the way regular expressions get evaluated.

Most Regex engines will work very similarly (with minor differences). The engine will match the first possible way to accept the current character and proceed to the next one. If it then fails to match the next one, it will backtrack and see if there was another way to digest the previous character. If it goes too far down the rabbit hole only to find out the string doesn’t match in the end, and if many characters have multiple valid regex paths, the number of backtracking steps can become very large, resulting in what is known as catastrophic backtracking.

Let's look at how our expression runs into this problem, using a shorter string: "ACCCX". While it seems fairly straightforward, there are still four different ways that the engine could match those three C's:

  1. CCC
  2. CC+C
  3. C+CC
  4. C+C+C.

The engine has to try each of those combinations to see if any of them potentially match against the expression. When you combine that with the other steps the engine must take, we can use RegEx 101 debugger to see the engine has to take a total of 38 steps before it can determine the string doesn't match.

From there, the number of steps the engine must use to validate a string just continues to grow.

String Number of C's Number of steps
ACCCX 3 38
ACCCCX 4 71
ACCCCCX 5 136
ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCX 14 65,553

By the time the string includes 14 C's, the engine has to take over 65,000 steps just to see if the string is valid. These extreme situations can cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size, as shown above), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

Remediation

Upgrade marked to version 0.6.2 or higher.

References

medium severity

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

  • Vulnerable module: marked
  • Introduced through: marked@0.3.19

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 marked@0.3.19
    Remediation: Upgrade to marked@0.4.0.

Overview

marked is a low-level compiler for parsing markdown without caching or blocking for long periods of time.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS). A Denial of Service condition could be triggered through exploitation of the heading regex.

Details

Denial of Service (DoS) describes a family of attacks, all aimed at making a system inaccessible to its original and legitimate users. There are many types of DoS attacks, ranging from trying to clog the network pipes to the system by generating a large volume of traffic from many machines (a Distributed Denial of Service - DDoS - attack) to sending crafted requests that cause a system to crash or take a disproportional amount of time to process.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Regular expressions are incredibly powerful, but they aren't very intuitive and can ultimately end up making it easy for attackers to take your site down.

Let’s take the following regular expression as an example:

regex = /A(B|C+)+D/

This regular expression accomplishes the following:

  • A The string must start with the letter 'A'
  • (B|C+)+ The string must then follow the letter A with either the letter 'B' or some number of occurrences of the letter 'C' (the + matches one or more times). The + at the end of this section states that we can look for one or more matches of this section.
  • D Finally, we ensure this section of the string ends with a 'D'

The expression would match inputs such as ABBD, ABCCCCD, ABCBCCCD and ACCCCCD

It most cases, it doesn't take very long for a regex engine to find a match:

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCD")'
0.04s user 0.01s system 95% cpu 0.052 total

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCX")'
1.79s user 0.02s system 99% cpu 1.812 total

The entire process of testing it against a 30 characters long string takes around ~52ms. But when given an invalid string, it takes nearly two seconds to complete the test, over ten times as long as it took to test a valid string. The dramatic difference is due to the way regular expressions get evaluated.

Most Regex engines will work very similarly (with minor differences). The engine will match the first possible way to accept the current character and proceed to the next one. If it then fails to match the next one, it will backtrack and see if there was another way to digest the previous character. If it goes too far down the rabbit hole only to find out the string doesn’t match in the end, and if many characters have multiple valid regex paths, the number of backtracking steps can become very large, resulting in what is known as catastrophic backtracking.

Let's look at how our expression runs into this problem, using a shorter string: "ACCCX". While it seems fairly straightforward, there are still four different ways that the engine could match those three C's:

  1. CCC
  2. CC+C
  3. C+CC
  4. C+C+C.

The engine has to try each of those combinations to see if any of them potentially match against the expression. When you combine that with the other steps the engine must take, we can use RegEx 101 debugger to see the engine has to take a total of 38 steps before it can determine the string doesn't match.

From there, the number of steps the engine must use to validate a string just continues to grow.

String Number of C's Number of steps
ACCCX 3 38
ACCCCX 4 71
ACCCCCX 5 136
ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCX 14 65,553

By the time the string includes 14 C's, the engine has to take over 65,000 steps just to see if the string is valid. These extreme situations can cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size, as shown above), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

Remediation

Upgrade marked to version 0.4.0 or higher.

References

medium severity

Prototype Pollution

  • Vulnerable module: minimist
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 phantomjs@1.9.20 extract-zip@1.5.0 mkdirp@0.5.0 minimist@0.0.8

Overview

minimist is a parse argument options module.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Prototype Pollution. The library could be tricked into adding or modifying properties of Object.prototype using a constructor or __proto__ payload.

PoC by Snyk

require('minimist')('--__proto__.injected0 value0'.split(' '));
console.log(({}).injected0 === 'value0'); // true

require('minimist')('--constructor.prototype.injected1 value1'.split(' '));
console.log(({}).injected1 === 'value1'); // true

Details

Prototype Pollution is a vulnerability affecting JavaScript. Prototype Pollution refers to the ability to inject properties into existing JavaScript language construct prototypes, such as objects. JavaScript allows all Object attributes to be altered, including their magical attributes such as _proto_, constructor and prototype. An attacker manipulates these attributes to overwrite, or pollute, a JavaScript application object prototype of the base object by injecting other values. Properties on the Object.prototype are then inherited by all the JavaScript objects through the prototype chain. When that happens, this leads to either denial of service by triggering JavaScript exceptions, or it tampers with the application source code to force the code path that the attacker injects, thereby leading to remote code execution.

There are two main ways in which the pollution of prototypes occurs:

  • Unsafe Object recursive merge
  • Property definition by path

Unsafe Object recursive merge

The logic of a vulnerable recursive merge function follows the following high-level model:

merge (target, source)

  foreach property of source

    if property exists and is an object on both the target and the source

      merge(target[property], source[property])

    else

      target[property] = source[property]

When the source object contains a property named _proto_ defined with Object.defineProperty() , the condition that checks if the property exists and is an object on both the target and the source passes and the merge recurses with the target, being the prototype of Object and the source of Object as defined by the attacker. Properties are then copied on the Object prototype.

Clone operations are a special sub-class of unsafe recursive merges, which occur when a recursive merge is conducted on an empty object: merge({},source).

lodash and Hoek are examples of libraries susceptible to recursive merge attacks.

Property definition by path

There are a few JavaScript libraries that use an API to define property values on an object based on a given path. The function that is generally affected contains this signature: theFunction(object, path, value)

If the attacker can control the value of “path”, they can set this value to _proto_.myValue. myValue is then assigned to the prototype of the class of the object.

Types of attacks

There are a few methods by which Prototype Pollution can be manipulated:

Type Origin Short description
Denial of service (DoS) Client This is the most likely attack.
DoS occurs when Object holds generic functions that are implicitly called for various operations (for example, toString and valueOf).
The attacker pollutes Object.prototype.someattr and alters its state to an unexpected value such as Int or Object. In this case, the code fails and is likely to cause a denial of service.
For example: if an attacker pollutes Object.prototype.toString by defining it as an integer, if the codebase at any point was reliant on someobject.toString() it would fail.
Remote Code Execution Client Remote code execution is generally only possible in cases where the codebase evaluates a specific attribute of an object, and then executes that evaluation.
For example: eval(someobject.someattr). In this case, if the attacker pollutes Object.prototype.someattr they are likely to be able to leverage this in order to execute code.
Property Injection Client The attacker pollutes properties that the codebase relies on for their informative value, including security properties such as cookies or tokens.
For example: if a codebase checks privileges for someuser.isAdmin, then when the attacker pollutes Object.prototype.isAdmin and sets it to equal true, they can then achieve admin privileges.

Affected environments

The following environments are susceptible to a Prototype Pollution attack:

  • Application server
  • Web server

How to prevent

  1. Freeze the prototype— use Object.freeze (Object.prototype).
  2. Require schema validation of JSON input.
  3. Avoid using unsafe recursive merge functions.
  4. Consider using objects without prototypes (for example, Object.create(null)), breaking the prototype chain and preventing pollution.
  5. As a best practice use Map instead of Object.

For more information on this vulnerability type:

Arteau, Oliver. “JavaScript prototype pollution attack in NodeJS application.” GitHub, 26 May 2018

Remediation

Upgrade minimist to version 0.2.1, 1.2.3 or higher.

References

medium severity

Remote Memory Exposure

  • Vulnerable module: request
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 phantomjs@1.9.20 request@2.67.0
    Remediation: Open PR to patch request@2.67.0.

Overview

request is a simplified http request client.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Remote Memory Exposure. A potential remote memory exposure vulnerability exists in request. If a request uses a multipart attachment and the body type option is number with value X, then X bytes of uninitialized memory will be sent in the body of the request.

Note that while the impact of this vulnerability is high (memory exposure), exploiting it is likely difficult, as the attacker needs to somehow control the body type of the request. One potential exploit scenario is when a request is composed based on JSON input, including the body type, allowing a malicious JSON to trigger the memory leak.

Details

Constructing a Buffer class with integer N creates a Buffer of length N with non zero-ed out memory. Example:

var x = new Buffer(100); // uninitialized Buffer of length 100
// vs
var x = new Buffer('100'); // initialized Buffer with value of '100'

Initializing a multipart body in such manner will cause uninitialized memory to be sent in the body of the request.

Proof of concept

var http = require('http')
var request = require('request')

http.createServer(function (req, res) {
  var data = ''
  req.setEncoding('utf8')
  req.on('data', function (chunk) {
    console.log('data')
    data += chunk
  })
  req.on('end', function () {
    // this will print uninitialized memory from the client
    console.log('Client sent:\n', data)
  })
  res.end()
}).listen(8000)

request({
  method: 'POST',
  uri: 'http://localhost:8000',
  multipart: [{ body: 1000 }]
},
function (err, res, body) {
  if (err) return console.error('upload failed:', err)
  console.log('sent')
})

Remediation

Upgrade request to version 2.68.0 or higher.

References

medium severity

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

  • Vulnerable module: semver-regex
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 bin-version-check@2.1.0 bin-version@1.0.4 find-versions@1.2.1 semver-regex@1.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 bin-version-check@2.1.0 bin-version@1.0.4 find-versions@1.2.1 semver-regex@1.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 bin-version-check@2.1.0 bin-version@1.0.4 find-versions@1.2.1 semver-regex@1.0.0
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 bin-version-check@2.1.0 bin-version@1.0.4 find-versions@1.2.1 semver-regex@1.0.0

Overview

semver-regex is a Regular expression for matching semver versions

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS).

PoC


// import of the vulnerable library
const semverRegex = require('semver-regex');
// import of measurement tools
const { PerformanceObserver, performance } = require('perf_hooks');

// config of measurements tools
const obs = new PerformanceObserver((items) => {
 console.log(items.getEntries()[0].duration);
 performance.clearMarks();
});
obs.observe({ entryTypes: ['measure'] });

// base version string
let version = "v1.1.3-0a"

// Adding the evil code, resulting in string
// v1.1.3-0aa.aa.aa.aa.aa.aa.a…a.a"
for(let i=0; i < 20; i++) {
   version += "a.a"
}

// produce a good version
// Parses well for the regex in milliseconds
let goodVersion = version + "2"

// good version proof
performance.mark("good before")
const goodresult = semverRegex().test(goodVersion);
performance.mark("good after")


console.log(`Good result: ${goodresult}`)
performance.measure('Good', 'good before', 'good after');

// create a bad/exploit version that is invalid due to the last $ sign
// will cause the nodejs engine to hang, if not, increase the a.a
// additions above a bit.
badVersion = version + "aaaaaaa$"

// exploit proof
performance.mark("bad before")
const badresult = semverRegex().test(badVersion);
performance.mark("bad after")

console.log(`Bad result: ${badresult}`)
performance.measure('Bad', 'bad before', 'bad after');

Details

Denial of Service (DoS) describes a family of attacks, all aimed at making a system inaccessible to its original and legitimate users. There are many types of DoS attacks, ranging from trying to clog the network pipes to the system by generating a large volume of traffic from many machines (a Distributed Denial of Service - DDoS - attack) to sending crafted requests that cause a system to crash or take a disproportional amount of time to process.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Regular expressions are incredibly powerful, but they aren't very intuitive and can ultimately end up making it easy for attackers to take your site down.

Let’s take the following regular expression as an example:

regex = /A(B|C+)+D/

This regular expression accomplishes the following:

  • A The string must start with the letter 'A'
  • (B|C+)+ The string must then follow the letter A with either the letter 'B' or some number of occurrences of the letter 'C' (the + matches one or more times). The + at the end of this section states that we can look for one or more matches of this section.
  • D Finally, we ensure this section of the string ends with a 'D'

The expression would match inputs such as ABBD, ABCCCCD, ABCBCCCD and ACCCCCD

It most cases, it doesn't take very long for a regex engine to find a match:

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCD")'
0.04s user 0.01s system 95% cpu 0.052 total

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCX")'
1.79s user 0.02s system 99% cpu 1.812 total

The entire process of testing it against a 30 characters long string takes around ~52ms. But when given an invalid string, it takes nearly two seconds to complete the test, over ten times as long as it took to test a valid string. The dramatic difference is due to the way regular expressions get evaluated.

Most Regex engines will work very similarly (with minor differences). The engine will match the first possible way to accept the current character and proceed to the next one. If it then fails to match the next one, it will backtrack and see if there was another way to digest the previous character. If it goes too far down the rabbit hole only to find out the string doesn’t match in the end, and if many characters have multiple valid regex paths, the number of backtracking steps can become very large, resulting in what is known as catastrophic backtracking.

Let's look at how our expression runs into this problem, using a shorter string: "ACCCX". While it seems fairly straightforward, there are still four different ways that the engine could match those three C's:

  1. CCC
  2. CC+C
  3. C+CC
  4. C+C+C.

The engine has to try each of those combinations to see if any of them potentially match against the expression. When you combine that with the other steps the engine must take, we can use RegEx 101 debugger to see the engine has to take a total of 38 steps before it can determine the string doesn't match.

From there, the number of steps the engine must use to validate a string just continues to grow.

String Number of C's Number of steps
ACCCX 3 38
ACCCCX 4 71
ACCCCCX 5 136
ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCX 14 65,553

By the time the string includes 14 C's, the engine has to take over 65,000 steps just to see if the string is valid. These extreme situations can cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size, as shown above), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

Remediation

Upgrade semver-regex to version 3.1.2 or higher.

References

medium severity

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

  • Vulnerable module: tough-cookie
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 phantomjs@1.9.20 request@2.67.0 tough-cookie@2.2.2
    Remediation: Open PR to patch tough-cookie@2.2.2.

Overview

tough-cookie is RFC6265 Cookies and Cookie Jar for node.js.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) attacks. An attacker may pass a specially crafted cookie, causing the server to hang.

Details

Denial of Service (DoS) describes a family of attacks, all aimed at making a system inaccessible to its original and legitimate users. There are many types of DoS attacks, ranging from trying to clog the network pipes to the system by generating a large volume of traffic from many machines (a Distributed Denial of Service - DDoS - attack) to sending crafted requests that cause a system to crash or take a disproportional amount of time to process.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Regular expressions are incredibly powerful, but they aren't very intuitive and can ultimately end up making it easy for attackers to take your site down.

Let’s take the following regular expression as an example:

regex = /A(B|C+)+D/

This regular expression accomplishes the following:

  • A The string must start with the letter 'A'
  • (B|C+)+ The string must then follow the letter A with either the letter 'B' or some number of occurrences of the letter 'C' (the + matches one or more times). The + at the end of this section states that we can look for one or more matches of this section.
  • D Finally, we ensure this section of the string ends with a 'D'

The expression would match inputs such as ABBD, ABCCCCD, ABCBCCCD and ACCCCCD

It most cases, it doesn't take very long for a regex engine to find a match:

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCD")'
0.04s user 0.01s system 95% cpu 0.052 total

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCX")'
1.79s user 0.02s system 99% cpu 1.812 total

The entire process of testing it against a 30 characters long string takes around ~52ms. But when given an invalid string, it takes nearly two seconds to complete the test, over ten times as long as it took to test a valid string. The dramatic difference is due to the way regular expressions get evaluated.

Most Regex engines will work very similarly (with minor differences). The engine will match the first possible way to accept the current character and proceed to the next one. If it then fails to match the next one, it will backtrack and see if there was another way to digest the previous character. If it goes too far down the rabbit hole only to find out the string doesn’t match in the end, and if many characters have multiple valid regex paths, the number of backtracking steps can become very large, resulting in what is known as catastrophic backtracking.

Let's look at how our expression runs into this problem, using a shorter string: "ACCCX". While it seems fairly straightforward, there are still four different ways that the engine could match those three C's:

  1. CCC
  2. CC+C
  3. C+CC
  4. C+C+C.

The engine has to try each of those combinations to see if any of them potentially match against the expression. When you combine that with the other steps the engine must take, we can use RegEx 101 debugger to see the engine has to take a total of 38 steps before it can determine the string doesn't match.

From there, the number of steps the engine must use to validate a string just continues to grow.

String Number of C's Number of steps
ACCCX 3 38
ACCCCX 4 71
ACCCCCX 5 136
ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCX 14 65,553

By the time the string includes 14 C's, the engine has to take over 65,000 steps just to see if the string is valid. These extreme situations can cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size, as shown above), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

Remediation

Upgrade to version 2.3.3 or newer.

References

medium severity

Uninitialized Memory Exposure

  • Vulnerable module: tunnel-agent
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 phantomjs@1.9.20 request@2.67.0 tunnel-agent@0.4.3
    Remediation: Open PR to patch tunnel-agent@0.4.3.
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 caw@1.2.0 tunnel-agent@0.4.3
    Remediation: Open PR to patch tunnel-agent@0.4.3.
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 caw@1.2.0 tunnel-agent@0.4.3
    Remediation: Open PR to patch tunnel-agent@0.4.3.
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 caw@1.2.0 tunnel-agent@0.4.3
    Remediation: Open PR to patch tunnel-agent@0.4.3.
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 caw@1.2.0 tunnel-agent@0.4.3
    Remediation: Open PR to patch tunnel-agent@0.4.3.
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 caw@1.2.0 tunnel-agent@0.4.3
    Remediation: Open PR to patch tunnel-agent@0.4.3.
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 caw@1.2.0 tunnel-agent@0.4.3
    Remediation: Open PR to patch tunnel-agent@0.4.3.
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 caw@1.2.0 tunnel-agent@0.4.3
    Remediation: Open PR to patch tunnel-agent@0.4.3.
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 caw@1.2.0 tunnel-agent@0.4.3
    Remediation: Open PR to patch tunnel-agent@0.4.3.

Overview

tunnel-agent is HTTP proxy tunneling agent. Affected versions of the package are vulnerable to Uninitialized Memory Exposure.

A possible memory disclosure vulnerability exists when a value of type number is used to set the proxy.auth option of a request request and results in a possible uninitialized memory exposures in the request body.

This is a result of unobstructed use of the Buffer constructor, whose insecure default constructor increases the odds of memory leakage.

Details

Constructing a Buffer class with integer N creates a Buffer of length N with raw (not "zero-ed") memory.

In the following example, the first call would allocate 100 bytes of memory, while the second example will allocate the memory needed for the string "100":

// uninitialized Buffer of length 100
x = new Buffer(100);
// initialized Buffer with value of '100'
x = new Buffer('100');

tunnel-agent's request construction uses the default Buffer constructor as-is, making it easy to append uninitialized memory to an existing list. If the value of the buffer list is exposed to users, it may expose raw server side memory, potentially holding secrets, private data and code. This is a similar vulnerability to the infamous Heartbleed flaw in OpenSSL.

Proof of concept by ChALkeR

require('request')({
  method: 'GET',
  uri: 'http://www.example.com',
  tunnel: true,
  proxy:{
      protocol: 'http:',
      host:"127.0.0.1",
      port:8080,
      auth:80
  }
});

You can read more about the insecure Buffer behavior on our blog.

Similar vulnerabilities were discovered in request, mongoose, ws and sequelize.

Remediation

Upgrade tunnel-agent to version 0.6.0 or higher. Note This is vulnerable only for Node <=4

References

low severity

Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS)

  • Vulnerable module: braces
  • Introduced through: angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0

Detailed paths

  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 braces@1.8.5
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 braces@1.8.5
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 braces@1.8.5
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 braces@1.8.5
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 braces@1.8.5
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 braces@1.8.5
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 braces@1.8.5
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 braces@1.8.5
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 braces@1.8.5
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 braces@1.8.5
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 braces@1.8.5
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 braces@1.8.5
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 braces@1.8.5
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 braces@1.8.5
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 braces@1.8.5
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-build@2.2.0 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 braces@1.8.5
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-gifsicle@4.2.0 gifsicle@3.0.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 braces@1.8.5
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-jpegtran@4.3.2 jpegtran-bin@3.2.0 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 braces@1.8.5
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-optipng@4.3.0 optipng-bin@3.1.4 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 braces@1.8.5
  • Introduced through: compodoc@0.0.9 angular2-dependencies-graph@1.0.0 svg-to-png@2.0.1 imagemin@3.1.0 imagemin-pngquant@4.2.2 pngquant-bin@3.1.1 bin-wrapper@3.0.2 download@4.4.3 gulp-decompress@1.2.0 decompress@3.0.0 vinyl-fs@2.4.4 glob-stream@5.3.5 micromatch@2.3.11 braces@1.8.5

Overview

braces is a Bash-like brace expansion, implemented in JavaScript.

Affected versions of this package are vulnerable to Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS). It used a regular expression (^\{(,+(?:(\{,+\})*),*|,*(?:(\{,+\})*),+)\}) in order to detects empty braces. This can cause an impact of about 10 seconds matching time for data 50K characters long.

Disclosure Timeline

  • Feb 15th, 2018 - Initial Disclosure to package owner
  • Feb 16th, 2018 - Initial Response from package owner
  • Feb 18th, 2018 - Fix issued
  • Feb 19th, 2018 - Vulnerability published

Details

Denial of Service (DoS) describes a family of attacks, all aimed at making a system inaccessible to its original and legitimate users. There are many types of DoS attacks, ranging from trying to clog the network pipes to the system by generating a large volume of traffic from many machines (a Distributed Denial of Service - DDoS - attack) to sending crafted requests that cause a system to crash or take a disproportional amount of time to process.

The Regular expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) is a type of Denial of Service attack. Regular expressions are incredibly powerful, but they aren't very intuitive and can ultimately end up making it easy for attackers to take your site down.

Let’s take the following regular expression as an example:

regex = /A(B|C+)+D/

This regular expression accomplishes the following:

  • A The string must start with the letter 'A'
  • (B|C+)+ The string must then follow the letter A with either the letter 'B' or some number of occurrences of the letter 'C' (the + matches one or more times). The + at the end of this section states that we can look for one or more matches of this section.
  • D Finally, we ensure this section of the string ends with a 'D'

The expression would match inputs such as ABBD, ABCCCCD, ABCBCCCD and ACCCCCD

It most cases, it doesn't take very long for a regex engine to find a match:

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCD")'
0.04s user 0.01s system 95% cpu 0.052 total

$ time node -e '/A(B|C+)+D/.test("ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCX")'
1.79s user 0.02s system 99% cpu 1.812 total

The entire process of testing it against a 30 characters long string takes around ~52ms. But when given an invalid string, it takes nearly two seconds to complete the test, over ten times as long as it took to test a valid string. The dramatic difference is due to the way regular expressions get evaluated.

Most Regex engines will work very similarly (with minor differences). The engine will match the first possible way to accept the current character and proceed to the next one. If it then fails to match the next one, it will backtrack and see if there was another way to digest the previous character. If it goes too far down the rabbit hole only to find out the string doesn’t match in the end, and if many characters have multiple valid regex paths, the number of backtracking steps can become very large, resulting in what is known as catastrophic backtracking.

Let's look at how our expression runs into this problem, using a shorter string: "ACCCX". While it seems fairly straightforward, there are still four different ways that the engine could match those three C's:

  1. CCC
  2. CC+C
  3. C+CC
  4. C+C+C.

The engine has to try each of those combinations to see if any of them potentially match against the expression. When you combine that with the other steps the engine must take, we can use RegEx 101 debugger to see the engine has to take a total of 38 steps before it can determine the string doesn't match.

From there, the number of steps the engine must use to validate a string just continues to grow.

String Number of C's Number of steps
ACCCX 3 38
ACCCCX 4 71
ACCCCCX 5 136
ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCX 14 65,553

By the time the string includes 14 C's, the engine has to take over 65,000 steps just to see if the string is valid. These extreme situations can cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size, as shown above), allowing an attacker to exploit this and can cause the service to excessively consume CPU, resulting in a Denial of Service.

Remediation

Upgrade braces to version 2.3.1 or higher.

References